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Chapter 4 discussion

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In this topic I have learned that glacier are thick ice masses that become by the accumulation of ice. The glaciers are formed after hundreds and thousands of years and these are not stationary, there is little movement. These are usually formed in remote areas. The present glaciers are modified during the period called Quaternary period. Glaciers plays an important role in rock cycle and hydrologic cycle. In rock cycle these are act as transportation agent for carrying the sediments while in hydrologic cycle, when precipitation occurs, then water freezes and becomes the part of glaciers and in summer season ice melts. I have studied different types of glaciers like valley glaciers, ice sheet glaciers, which are bigger in size and also other types are also present like ice caps. Ice covered North Pole is not glacier but it is sea ice. 18,000 years ago in the age called “Last Glacial Maximum” ice not only covered Greenland and Antarctica but also covered large part of North America, Europe, and Siberia. At large part of Antarctic coast when glaciers flow into ocean then it creates a feature called ice shelves. The movement occurs in glaciers is of two types. First one is plastic movement in which movement occurs within the ice. Ice acts as brittle solids as long as there is weight of 50 meters and when the load is removed then ice behaves as plastic material and it starts flowing. The other types is that the entire mass slips. The movement of glaciers is more in center while less at edges. The movement of glaciers is not fix. Some glaciers move very slowly such that in that time plants becomes trees while some moves as few meters per day. I have also studied about zone of accumulation which is useful, and zone of wastage which is not useful. I have also studied about glacial budget in which there is accumulation at one side while wastage at the other. I have also studied about glacial erosion that erosion occurs in two ways i.e. plucking and abrasion. In plucking, glaciers move over fractured rocks and takes the block with it while in other, glacier moves over bed rock and makes it polish and acts as a sand paper and carries the powder formed by it. The amount of glacial erosion depends upon ice thickness. Glacial erosion also created landforms. Glacial erosion creates many features like Cirques, Arêtes and Horns, Fiords. I have also studied about glacial deposits that glacial carries large boulders with themselves. I have studied the two types of glacial drifts called stratified drift and tills. Stratified drift is classified according to size of sediments while till is deposited as glacier melt and it deposit debris. I have also studied different features created by glacial deposits like Moraines, Outwash Plains, and Kettles, Lateral and Medial Moraines, End Moraines and Ground Moraines etc.I have also studied the effects of glaciers that when glaciers advance, people, animals have to move. When ice melts, water level in rivers increase which causes many effects. When a large block of ice melts then weight on land decreases which causes crust rebounding upward. Glaciers forms from water which comes when water from lakes evaporates sowhen ice sheets forms then water level in lakes decreases which causes many problems. The dry regions of earth is 30% of total earth’s land. In deserts, people only live in those areas where water is present otherwise where water is not available, these live no people. Those places where water is less are classified into two parts desert and steppe. Desert is the land where humidity is less while steppe is the place where humidity is more. The streams in the desert lands are seasonal and these die out quickly because groundwater is low in those areas so ground water does not recharges thestreams. In Basin and Range regions erosion occurs without any reference to the ocean because interior-draining streams does not reach the sea. Wind is also a transportation agent. However wind carries small particles as compared to water. Wind erodes in many ways like Deflation, Blowouts, and Desert Pavement. Wind deposits different things like silt, sand/ when energy of wind of carrying decreases it deposits whatever it carries.From this topic I have learn that glaciers are very important because they provide water in summer when there is shortage of water due to less rains. But there is also many demerits of glaciers that they increase the water levelin lakes and rivers and causes flood but it have also maximum benefits. There should be some planning that we know that in summers when glaciers will melt there would be chances of flood. So we should be prepared to protect ourselves from flood and utilize the water of glaciers.I have a questions for you that what steps should be taken to protect ourselves from flood when glaciers


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