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BU PSYC 220 - 1_23-1_28

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1/23 Freudian Fixation: stuck in a stage, can’t progress, internal conflict - Retentive: overly neat, orderly - Expulsive: overly messy PMS The “terrible twos” : when kids start to assert themselves, push the limits of independence Colic: babies have a painfully upset stomach- cry a lottttt, at least 3 hrs a day, 3 days a week, at least 3 weeks, subsides after about a month Sexual promiscuity Developmental Theories - Describe, explain, predict development - Cognitive, social, physical Otitis Media of the ear (in young children <3yrs) Symptoms - Runny eyes - Snotty nose - Frequent night waking - Cranky - Unwilling to lie flat - Crying screaming, cold symptoms - Drainage from ear - Sudden worsening of cold symptoms - Fever - Can’t hear, language is delayed - Minor cases may have none of these symptoms - Not contagious, but respiratory problems are - More common in daycare, less common in breastfed babies - Treatment = Antibiotics and tubes - Kipp & Blood study examined effects of OM on children in three daycare situations differing in quality. Children 12-18 months chronic and non chronic OM groups - RESULTS: chronic OM children reported less attentive, off task behaviorsDEVELOPMENT - Age graded developmental factor (license at 16-17) - History graded (great depression, WW1) - Nonnormative (sports,theater) MAJOR ISSUES - Quantitative or qualitative? - Continuous or discontinuous? - Genetic or environmental? - Context? - Multidimensional and Multidirectional Organismic vs Mechanistic Theories - Organismic: ex. A butterfly (caterpillar, chrysalis, butterfly) - quaLitative difference, changes in structure - Active development rather than passive (movement towards a goal) - Mechanistic - Only quaNtitative change - Passive reaction - No movement towards a goal, doesn’t end - Contextual: family, school, neighborhood THEORIES - Behaviorism: learning theory - Classical Conditioning (watson’s Little Albert Study) (loud noise, rat = scared of rat) - Following up on Pavlov, showed you can use classical conditioning on a human infant - Operant conditioning: Instrumental behavior modification - Reinforce = increase behavior, Punishment = decrease behavior - Positive = add something, Negative = take something away - Social Learning Theory: Bandura, Bobo doll - kids watched adults assault the doll, imitated behavior - Modeling : learning by watchingETHOLOGY - the science of animal behavior - Emphasizes relevance of environmental Contexts - Seeks to understand adaptive or survival value of behavior and its evolutionary history - Important concepts - Imprinting (biologically driven) Konrad Lorenz - Klaus and Kennell - Bowlby: father of attachment theory - Sensitive / critical periods - BondingECOLOGICAL APPROACH : Urie Bronfenbrenner - to really see something you have to research in the natural environment, rather than Lab. created nested systems below Series of nested systems ● Microsystems: individual’s immediate surroundings ○ right now it’s this chair in LH ○ could be texting ● Mesosystems: connections among microsystems, interaction ○ Friends talking together ○ Parent-teacher conference ● Exosystems: doesn’t directly contain individual, but influences them ○ Ex. mom has a bad day of work, influences her mood which then influences my day ● Macrosystem: values, ideals, customs, laws of a particular culture ○ Ex. child abuse legality ● Chronosystem: temporal (time) ○ Timing of siblings entering the world ■ More likely to fight with smaller age gap ○ Growing up during a war period DON’T CONFUSE MESO AND EXOEXPERIMENTS Important terms ● Independent variable: manipulated ● Dependent variables: outcome resulting from manipulation ● Reliability: do they measure what they’re measuring consistently? Ex. tests & quizzes measuring class consistently- using past exam questions that have proven reliable ● Validity: is it measuring what they’re measuring? Ex. measuring anxiety instead of depression; hard to establish validity. Experimental Designs Used ● Cross-sectional design: Cross-sectional study design is a type of observational study design. In a cross-sectional study, the investigator measures the outcome and exposures in the study participants at the same time. ○ Pros: Quick, inexpensive, differences at certain points can be studied ○ Cons: No info about past determinants, no info about individual development, no info about developmental process ○ Cohort (people born at the same time) effect- cross sectional experiment as development ages, IQ drops : can’t be controlled, other factors, problems ● Longitudinal: A longitudinal study is a research design that involves repeated observations of the same variables over short or long periods of time. It is often a type of observational study, although they can also be structured as longitudinal randomized experiments. ○ Pros: stability of a behavior can be determined, impact of early events on later behavior can be investigated, differences in behavior at different points in development can be studied ○ Cons: expensive, subject loss, changes in people(cohorts), inflexibility, test/retest effects ● Sequential : ○ Pros: flexible, stability of behavior can be determined, impact of early events on later behavior can be investigated,Correlational studies ● Correlation does not equal causation Important Terms ● Positive correlation (0 to 1) : Positive Correlation is a steady relationship between two variables in the same direction, meaning that as the value of one variable increases, the value of the other increases as well. (And as the value of one variable decreases, so does the other). ○ Amount of time studying and grades ● Negative correlation (0 to -1) : a relationship between two variables in which the value of one variable increases as the value of the other decreases. For example, in a study about babies crying and being held, the discovery that those who are held more tend to cry less is a negative correlation. Also called inverse correlation. ○ Amount of time partying and grades ● Correlation coefficient : usually not very close to 1/-1 Observations Ex. Jane Goodall Naturalistic observations on the chimps ● Observation ○ Naturalistic- presence should not mess up data ■ Ex. Jane messed up by feeding chimps ○ Structured ■ How long would the kids keep their eyes on the hamster in a room full of toys


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