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Mizzou MPP 3202 - Study guide for cardiovascular physiology

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Study guide for cardiovascular physiologyLect. 1 Blood and cardiac function1. Most important function of CV system: bulk transport of blood, containing gases, nutrients & waste products over relatively long distances, thus overcoming the limitations of simple diffusion2. CV system: 1) blood, 2) heart (pump), & vessels, arranged into 2 separate, but series-connected systems: pulmonary & systemic; entire system functions like as a closed, hydraulic loop.3. Blood: composed of 1) plasma (fluid phase) & 2) formed elements (cells & platelets)4. Plasma: composed of water & solutes (ions, small organic molecules & proteins)5. Plasma proteins—multiple functions, one of most important is determining plasma colloid osmotic (oncotic) pressure (especially albumin)What is the physiological advantage of having a circulatory system to provide bulk transport of nutrients/gases through the body?What are the main functions of the circulatory system, and what are its main components? What is blood, and what are its main components?What is in plasma—i.e. what molecules, of these, which type of molecule tends to STAY in plasma?What is the major plasma protein which determines plasma colloid osmotic (oncotic) pressure?What is the major function of red blood cells (erythrocytes)? What is the key protein in RBCs which is responsible for this function?What is hematocrit? 1. Overall role of the heart in the CV system; cardiac anatomy and the roles of heart valves in determining one-way flow of blood.2. Cardiac cycle—systole/diastole, relationship of changes in pressure and volume in the heart chambers and arterial system to events in the cycle3. Cardiac electrical conduction systemList in order the vessels and heart chambers a red cell flows through during a complete circuit through both sides of the heart. What are the valves which ensure one-way flow of blood through the heart ? Know which valves control entry into the ventricles and which control entry into the arteries. Which ones are open/closed during ventricular contraction (systole) vs relaxation (diastole)?Understand the cardiac cycle: know what is going on in the ventricles, atria and major arteries (i.e. aorta)(pressure and volume) during the phases of filling, isovolumetric contraction, ejection, and isovolumetricrelaxation, and how these phases correlate with the opening and closing of the heart valves. If you are presented with a depiction of the Wiggers Diagram, know how to label the different phases of the cardiac cycleWhat are the key anatomic/structural features of cardiac muscle which allows all those separate muscle fibers (cells) to function as a coordinated electrical/contractile unit?What are the two different types of cardiac muscle cells? Structurally, what are the major ways in which they differ?What are the major components of the cardiac electrical conduction system? Explain how an excitation event occurring in the SA node travels through the conducting system, and how that wave of excitation isrelated to both atrial and ventricular contraction. Where does ventricular contraction start?Lect. 2 Cardiac physiology1. Electrical behavior of cardiac autorhythmic (pacemaker) and contractile cells2. EKG3. Cardiac output—stroke volume, heart rate and their control4. Venous returnHow do contractile and autorhythmic (pacemaker) cells differ in their electrical properties? Why do cardiac myocytes normally not undergo tetany?In pacemaker cells, sodium slowly leaks into the cell to cause a slow, spontaneous depolarization (the so-called, pacemaker potential). What occurs when that potential reaches -40 mV? What happens to the pacemaker potential during sympathetic vs parasympathetic stimulation, and how would that affect heart rate?What is the EKG? What do the different waves and intervals mean? How do the electrical events recorded by the EKG relate to the changes in pressure within the ventricles?e.g., what is the temporal relationship between say, the QRS complex and the period of isovolumetric contraction?What is the Frank-Starling Law of the Heart? How does it describe the relationship between venous return, end diastolic volume and stroke volume? For example, according to this relationship, what happens to cardiac output if venous return increases? How ‘bout if it decreases?What is end diastolic volume (aka: EDV, preload)? Why is EDV also referred to as preload? What is afterload?What is cardiac output? How is it related to stroke volume and heart rate? KNOW THIS EQUATION: CO = SV x HR. How is C.O. controlledHow is heart rate controlled?What are the respective effects of sympathetic vs parasympathetic stimulation on both heart rate and strength of contraction?How is stroke volume controlled?Even if there is no increase in EDV, stroke volume can increase. How can this happen? (also, see the question above from lect #2 on the effect of epinephrine on SV) What is the difference between an inotropic and a chronotropic effect? What does a positive inotropic effect mean? What does a negative chronotropic effect mean? What respective effects do sympathetic and parasympathetic stimulation have on chronotropy and inotropy?What is the relationship between venous return and EDV?What factors can influence venous return? How can the volume reservoir function of the venous system be harnessed to increase venous return?Lect. 3 The plumbing & the physics of flow and resistance 1. Function of each major part of the CV system. General roles of systemic arteries, arterioles, capillary beds, and veins 2. Overall distribution of blood flow throughout the CV system3. Structure & function of the different types of blood vessels4. Starling forces & capillary exchange5. Lymphatic system6. The importance of pressure gradients7. Vascular fluid dynamics: flow & resistance to flow, & vessel diameterWith every heartbeat, what single organ receives the highest % of cardiac output? Why is that important?Why is the velocity (linear speed, i.e. distance traveled per unit time) slow in an individual capillary, but the total flow (volume per unit time per unit surface area) over all the body’s capillary beds is the same as in the relatively huge aorta?How do the different types of blood vessels vary in diameter and composition? What structural feature do they all have in common, and how do differences in other features relate to a given vessel type’sfunction—e.g. why do large arteries act as a pressure reservoir, while


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