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MTC SPC 205 - final exam study guide SPC

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Study Guide for Final Exam The final will consist of 40 MC questions, 10 True/False, and 5 short answer questions. Chapters covered on this test include chapters 9, 12, 14, 16-18 Note: These are the terms and ideas most likely to appear on the mid-term. Some may appear, while others may not. - Organization patterns:o Topical- Use when your central idea has natural divisions Primacy-you discuss your most important or convincing point first in your speech Recency-the point that was discussed last is the one audience will remember best Complexity-progressing from the simple to the more complexo Chronological- organization by timeo Spatial- arranging ideas according to location or directiono cause-effect- a speech organized to show cause and effect may first identifya situation and then discuss the effects that result from ito problem solution- Used to emphasize how best to solve the problem- Using words effectively o Use specific concrete wordso Use simple wordso Use words correctlyo Use words concisely- Affiliationo Building solidarity with others through speech - Convergence vs. divergence o Convergence: Process of adapting one’s speech style to match that of others. o Divergence: Speaking in a way that emphasizes differences.- Powerless languageo Hedges -I’m kind of disappointed, I think we should, I guess I’d like to o Hesitations -Uh, can I have a minute of your time, Well we could o Polite Forms -Excuse me sire o Tag Questions -It’s about time we got started isn’t o Disclaimers-I probably shouldn’t say this - Metaphors and similes - Concrete words, o Concrete terms refer to objects or events that are available to the senseo Measured or observed- levels of abstraction o models how something can be described in either concrete or abstract languageo The higher the level of abstraction, the vaguer thestatement becomes- Connotation vs. denotation o Denotation-Literal meaningo Connotation-Meaning we associate with the word- Types of presentation aids o 3Do 2Do Computer generated aidso Audiovisual aids- Guidelines for presentation aids o Simple and uncomplicatedo Color and fontso Communicate clearly- Goals of persuasion o Changing or reinforcing audience- Persuasive appeals: o Ethos-appeals to credibilityo logos-appeals to logico Pathos-appeals to the heart - Elaboration Likelihood Persuasion model-describes howaudience members interpret persuasive messageo Elaborate-you think about the information, ideas, andissues related to the content of the message you hearo direct persuasion route-when you elaborate, consciously think about, orcritically evaluate a messageo indirect persuasion route-influenced by the more peripheral factors of the message and the messengers- Central vs. peripheral processing o Central-seriously considering what the speaker’s message meansand act on it (mindful)o Peripheral- message is notseriously processed (credibility, likeability, and attractiveness, other people reactions, etc.)- Cognitive dissonance and how listeners cope with ito when you are presented with information inconsistent with your current attitudes, beliefs, values, or behavior, you become aware that you have a problem; you experience a kind of discomforto Cope: Discredit the source, Reinterpret the message, seek new information, Stop listening,Change their attitudes, beliefs, values, or behavior- Maslow’s hierarchy of needso According to Maslow, our needs are ordered in a hierarchy, so that we must satisfy the needs at the base of the pyramid beforewe are motivated to address higher-level needs. - Positive vs negative motivation o Positive expecting a rewardo Negative-avoiding pain or punishment- Social judgement theory (3 latitudes) o Message-ego involvement-latitudeo Acceptance, non-commitment, rejectiono The key point of the SocialJudgment Theory is that attitude change (persuasion) is mediated by judgmental processes and effects. - Propositions of fact, value, and policy o fact -Is/Is not proposes whether something is or is not, true or false. Frequently verifiable, and oftentakes a more objective approach. Draws on logical inferences.o Value- Good/Badtakes a more evaluative position. Judges whether something is good/bad, right/wrong, just/unjust, ethical/non-ethical, etc.We judge the worth of something.- Policy-Should/Should not- advocates a specific course of action- Elements of credibility o Trustworthinesso Competencyo objectivity- Initial credibilityo an individual has before beginning his or her speech; this is mostly based on the reputation and credentials of the speaker- Derived credibilityo credibility an individual hasdeveloped while deliveringa speech; the quality of thespeech and the professionalism of the speaker creates this credibility- terminal credibility o credibility an individual hasgained or lost after delivering a speech. Think of terminal credibility as more of the lasting impression that an audience has of a speech and a speaker- Inductive reasoningo Involves presenting the specific evidence first, then building up to the general conclusion. - Deductive reasoningo Involves presenting the position or general conclusion first, then providing the supporting evidence.- causal reasoning o the relationship between acause and its effect- Components of syllogism o Major premise- the first part of a syllogism, consisting of a general statement about the subject of your objecto Minor premise- a statement about a specificcase related to the generalcharacteristics of the majorpremise.o Conclusion- claim made by the speaker, true when major premise (reasoning) and minor premise (evidence) are true- Using evidence in persuasiveness’s o Strong evidenceo Strong reasoningo Increase speaker’s credibility - Fallacies: o ad hominem-Attacking the person instead of the issueo slippery slope-Occurs when a speaker argues that a relatively small event sets off a chain reactiono non-sequitur-Occurs when a speaker's conclusion does not connect to their argument's premiseo misplaced authority-Occurs when a speaker assumes that something isbetter because it is oldero Casual-The speaker assumes that when one event comes after another,the first event is the cause of the secondo Bandwagon-doing something because everyone else iso either/or-Occurs when only two alternatives are compared, when there are more optionso hasty generalization-Occurs when speaker has insufficient support materialso straw person-Occurs when a speaker distorts,


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