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UIUC PSYC 239 - Module2_studyGuide

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Important concepts to know – Module 2The concepts listed below are the most important ones for you to understand in this module. You can use this list to help you with notetaking while you watch the videos. Unit 3 – Touch and Pain The sense of Touch includes a variety of sensations  Touch receptors :o Thermoreceptors o Mechanoreceptors o Kinesthetic receptors o Nociceptors o Itch receptorso Pleasant/Gentle touch receptors  The Skin and Its Receptors  Mechanoreceptors o Understand the 4 types of Mechanoreceptors What is proprioception?o Muscle spindleso Joint receptorso Golgi tendon organso alcohol consumption affects proprioception Pinocchio illusion Patient: Ian Waterman  Thermoreceptors Definition of Pain Nociceptive paino Where nociceptors can be found  Other Types of Paino Neuropathic paino Inflammatory paino Empathy paino Emotional pain Difference between A-delta fibers and C-fibers No Pain Sensation? Melzack and Wall (1988)’s study What are the Two Pain Pathways to the Brain Somatosensory Cortex o Somatotopic map The Homunculus Phantom limb syndrome Suborganization of the Somatosensory Cortex  The “What” Channel The “Where” Channel: Correcting Grip Pathways of paino Gate Control Theoryo Implications of Gate Control Theoryo Over-sensitization vs. desensitization Role of Anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) in pain perception Role of Prefrontal cortex in pain perception Empathy Pain The Neurochemistry of Pain: Endogenous Opioids o Analgesiao Runner’s higho Other chemicals - Addiction risk The Perception of Itch o Pruriceptors Gentle Toucho Mechanisms of pleasant toucho brain regions related to the pleasant touch Haptic Perception  Active vs. Passive Explorationo Active and passive exploration in perception o Experiment by Klatzky, Lederman, & Metzger (1985) Tactile agnosia Touch Psychophysics Sensitivity to pressureo Weinstein (1968)’s experiment A Model of the Body’s Two-point Threshold Responseo Two point threshold How we accurately perceive point localization How we can detect Irregularities on surfaces Similarity between touch and visiono Visual acuity vs. Tactile acuity Masking o Results of maskingo Backward vs. Forward maskingo Meta-contrast masking Disorders and phenomena related to toucho Diabetic foot o Numb sense o Anarchic hand o Alien hand  Hemisomatognosia (Marchetti & Della Sala, 1998)o Out of body experienceo Rubber hand illusionUnit 4 – Chemical Senses The Anatomy and Physiology of the Olfactory System  The Noseo Nasal septumo Turbinateso Olfactory clefo Olfactory epithelium Anosmia The Anatomy of the Olfactory Epithelium Olfactory Pathway Macrosmatic vs Microsmatic species: Olfaction-Vision Tradeoff The Anatomy of the Trigeminal Nerve What is olfactory perception? Olfactory Receptor Neuronso Its Mechanisms and physiology  Odor Recall Odor Sensitivity Odor Habituationo Receptor Adaptationo Cognitive Habituation Shape Pattern Theory Olfaction Hedonicso Mechanism of Pleasantness vs. Unpleasantness of odor development olfactory system and odor sense Odors and Survival Odors and Memory Odors and Sex Taste Perceptiono Tastants o Tasteo Flavor Anatomy of the Tongue and Taste Coding o Taste budso Papillaeo Taste receptor cellso Anterior insular cortex (insula)  Pathways of Taste to the Brain The Six Basic Tasteso Saltyo Souro Bittero Sweet!o Umamio Oleogustus Is Taste-Liking Hardwired? Individual Differences of taste  Social influences of taste Individual variability Pain management  Phantosmia

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