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Anatomy Test

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Anatomy Test 1Anatomy and Subdivisions1. Anatome – Greek, means dissect2. Anatomy – the study of the structure and the relationship among structures3. Gross Anatomy – study of large anatomy that can be seen with the naked eye4. Regional Anatomy – The study of different regions of the body5. Systemic Anatomy – The study the different systems of the body6. Microscopic Anatomy – Study of the parts of the body not seen with the naked eyea. Cytology – study of the cellsb. Histology – study of tissue7. Developmental Anatomy – study of egg to adulta. Embryology – study of the egg through birth8. Pathological Anatomy – Study of changes in the body due to disease9. Radiographic Anatomy – Study of the body without cutting it open using different toolsMedical Imaging1. X-Ray – Uses gamma light energy to take pictures of the body2. CT scan – computerized tomographya. Light energy is still usedb. X-ray is then sent to the computer3. Xenon CT scan – the process of breathing in Xenon gasa. More active body parts have a more intense colorb. Can help diagnose strokes4. DSR scan – dynamic special reconstructiona. 3D imagingb. light energy5. DSA – digital subtraction angiographya. Light energyb. Used for BLOOD VESSELSc. Liquid injected into the blood vessels and before and after photo are taken6. PET scan – positron electron tomographya. Radioisotope injected into the body and can be traced throughout7. Ultrasound – uses sound wavesa. Bounces off tissue to detect the figure of the baby8. MRI – magnetic resonance imaginga. Uses magnetic fields in the bodyb. Detects hydrogen ions9. MRS – magnetic resonance spectroscopya. Detects calcium ions10. M2A – uses little robots to see with a digital camera inside the bodyPhysiology – study of the functions of body parts including the chemical and physical processesLevels of Organization1. Chemical – where are the chemical reactions of the body take place2. Cellular – cells, the basic structural and functional group of life3. Tissue – groups of similar cells that are joined together4. Organ – 2 or more tissues grouped togethera. Skin is the body’s largest organ5. Organ system – 2 or more organs6. Organismic – total of all the organ systems, the organismLife Processes 1. Limiting boundaries – separates the inside of the body from the outsidea. Skin is the limiting boundary2. Excitability – ability to detect a change3. Conductivity – the ability to carry a stimulus from one part of the body to another4. Metabolism – the sum of all the chemical reactionsa. Anabolic – build upb. Catabolic – break down5. Digestion6. Excretion7. Movement8. Growth – increase the # of cells, or increase the size of existing cells9. Reproduction – reproduce cells or an offspringSurvival Needs1. Nutrients – chemical substances used for energy or growth2. Oxygen3. Water – most important need, makes of 60-80% of the body, constantly being lost4. Normal body temperature – homeostasis5. Atmospheric pressureHomeostasis – condition of stable internal body environment, always in dynamic equilibrium1. Optimum survival needs2. Narrow range homeostasis can occur3. Stress – lose homeostasis which creates an imbalance in the internal environmenta. The nervous system and endocrine system regulate stressi. Nervous system – electrical messages (faster, shorter)ii. Endocrine system – chemical messages produced by hormones (shorter, longer)Feedback systems – information is continually reported to a central control region1. Negative feedback – response to reverse initial condition and return the body to homeostasis2. Positive feedback – initial condition is amplifiedMatter – anything that occupies space and has mass1. Composed of chemical elements2. 3 statesa. solid – definite shape and slow moleculeb. liquid – shape of the container and average speedc. gas – no shape and fast moleculeElements – substances that cannot be decomposed into smaller substance by ordinary chemicalreactions1. 118 chemical elements – 92 occur naturally2. human body contains 24 elements3. O, C, H & N = 96% plus Ca & P = 99%4. The other 3% are called trace elements that exist in small amountsEnergy – the ability to do work and put matter into motion – energy is neither created nor destroyed and not 100% of the energy is transferred1. Potential energy – stored energy2. Kinetic Energy – energy of motion, energy is being release3. Chemical energy – energy stored in bonds that is released when the bonds break4. Electrical energy – charged particles create a flow of energy  leads to the production of ATP5. Mechanical energy – energy of motion that is caused by something doing work6. Electromagnetic energy – energy that travels in wavesAtom – the smallest unit of matter that can enter a chemical reaction, makes up all the elements1. Nucleus – most of the mass of the atoma. Proton – positively charged particleb. Neutron – neutral charged particle2. Electrons – negatively charged particle3. The number of electrons = the number of protons in a neutral atom4. Atomic number = the number of protons5. Atomic mass = the number of protons and neutrons6. Isotope = a change in the number of neutrons  produces a radioactive atomEnergy Levels – regions in which the electrons move around the nucleus1. Valence – the number of extra or deficient electrons in the outermost energy level – where the interaction of electrons occursChemical Reactions – combining or breaking apart of atoms forming new products with different properties from the originals1. Molecule – combination of two or more atoms from a chemical reaction2. Compound – can be broken down by chemical means, always contain two or more DIFFERENT elements3. All compounds are molecules but all molecules aren’t compoundsChemical bonding – attractive forces that hold together the atoms of a molecule1. Ionic – opposite charges attract – one donates and one receives in the exchange of electrons a. Cation – positive chargeb. Anion – negative chargedc. Called ions or electrolytes2. Covalent – sharking of electronsa. Most stable type of bondb. Strength increases with the number of bonds (single, double, triple)3. Hydrogen bonds – more of an attractive forcea. Hydrogen bonds to N,O,FChemical Reactions – making or breaking of bonds, the number of atoms remain the same but some are rearranged1. Synthesis reaction a. Anabolicb. 2 or more


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