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ANATOMICAL TERMS AND STRUCTURE

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Lesson 2 ANATOMICAL TERMS AND STRUCTURE Aim Identify the meaning of words that describe general anatomical features, including disorders This lesson deals with understanding the terminology used to describe the body structure (anatomy). It is not concerned with how those parts function. That would be too much to attempt in one lesson; not to mention the fact that function is an entirely distinct area of study (physiology). In this lesson you should concentrate on: “what” and “where” in relation to the parts of the body. Do not worry so much about “why” and “how” those parts function. While some basics will be provided during this course, if you want or need to know more about how and why the body works in the way it does, you will need to undertake a course in Human Biology. EXAMPLES OF PREFIXES Prefix Meaning or pertaining to- Application in a Word Ab- Away from Abnormal, aberrant Ad- Toward Adduction, adhesion Acro- or Acr- Extremities Acrophobia Cardio- or Cardi- Heart Cardiac, cardio myelitis Cephal- Head Cephalic, cephalgia Cervi- Neck, or neck of an organ Cervix Cyto- or Cyt- Cell Cytology Dermat/o or derm- Skin Dermis En- endo- inside Encephalitis, endoderm Ex- exo- or ecto- outside Exoskeleton, ectoplasm Fore- In front Forehead, forearm Gastro- or gastr- stomach gastric Gingiv/o- gum gingivitis Gloss/o- tongue glossitis Hema- or hemo- blood Haemophilia, haemorrhage Hepati- liver Hepatitis, hepatic Inter- between Intercostal, interferon Kerato- cornea Keratitis, keratoconus Juxta- Near or close Juxtaspinal, juxtavesicular Labia- Lips (of mouth or vulva) Labial Media- Middle (or nearest the centre of the body) Medial, mediastinum Stomat/o- mouth Stomatisis Naso- nose Nasopharynx, nasogastric Neuro- nerves Neurotoxin, neuropathy Ocul- Eye oculist Odont- tooth odontiod 1Oo- Related to the female gamete (egg) Oocyte, oophorectomy Opthal- Eye Opthalmology Oto- Ear Otology, otoscope Peri Around or about Periaortic, pericardial Rhin Nose Rhinitis, rhinophyma Sub- Below (in terms of physical location) Subcutaneous, sublingual Supra- above Supraglottal, suprarenal Tempor Relating to the temple areas of the head Temporomandibular, temporal Thora- Chest area Thoracic, thoracentesis Tracheo- Relating to the trachea (windpipe) Tracheostomy Ure/i- or urethr- Relating to the urine and the urinary tract (from the constituent of urine, urea) Urethritis, urinary, ureter EXAMPLES OF SUFFIXES Suffix Meaning Application in a Word -al or -ar Pertaining to Renal, lingual, lumbar -Able or -ible Is capable of Flexible, ingestible -cyte Pertaining to cells Lymphocyte, -derma Of the skin Leukoderma, -ic Pertaining to hypodermic -megaly Oversized, larger than normal Cephalomegaly, acromegaly -itis Inflammation of Periocarditis, gastritis -oid Resembling or like lipoid, ovoid -oma tumour Carcinoma, melanoma -osis Also –a or -y Abnormal condition of Cyanosis, -stasis State or condition of equilibrium, can also refer to a slowed or stopped flow of fluid Homeostasis, metastasis, venous stasis -static In the condition or state of, stable Homeostatic, metastatic -trophy Pertaining to cells, tissue or organs their state or development Atrophy, hypertrophy, dystrophy SELF ASSESSMENT Perform the self assessment test titled ‘Test 2.1.’ If you answer incorrectly, review the notes and try the test again. 2Location of organs 3Brain Structure Frontal Lobe Parietal Lobe Occipital Lobe Cerebrum Structures of the Midbrain 45Position Human bodies are bilaterally symmetrical, that is, the right and left sides of the body mirror each other. Various medical terms are used to identify the position of the body. Anatomical Position The standard body position, used as a reference point. The feet are flat on the floor. Arms hanging at the side of the body. Palms facing forward. Thumbs pointed away from body. Superior Towards the head or upper part of the body e.g. the femur is superior to the patella. Inferior Towards the lower part of the body e.g. the patella is inferior to the femur. Anterior (Ventral) Towards or at the front of the body e.g. the sternum is anterior to the spine. Posterior (Dorsal) Towards the back of the body e.g. the heart is posterior to the sternum. Medial Towards or at the midline of the body. The midline is the imaginary vertical line that divides the body in right and left sides equally. E.g. The tibia is medial to the fibula Lateral Away from the midline of the body e.g. the fibula is lateral to the tibia. Ipsilateral On the same side of the body e.g. the left leg and left arm are ipsilateral. Contralateral On the opposite side of the body e.g. the left leg and the right arm are contralateral. Proximal Closer to the point of attachment of a limb to the trunk of the body e.g. the elbow is proximal to the wrist. Distal Farther from the point of attachment of a limb to the trunk of the body e.g. the ankle is distal to the hip. Superficial Towards or at the surface of the body e.g. the skin is superficial to the skeleton. Deep Away from the body surface, internal e.g. The lungs are deep to the ribs. SELF ASSESSMENT Perform the self assessment test titled ‘Test 2.2.’ If you answer incorrectly, review the notes and try the test again. 6WORD FORMS, ABBREVIATIONS AND SYMBOLS An acronym is an abbreviation that is pronounced as a series of constituent letters; an initialism is an abbreviation whose pronunciation is wholly or partly the names of constituent letters; and a pseudo-blend is an abbreviation whose extra or omitted letters means that it cannot be considered a true acronym, initialism, or portmanteau (a word formed by combining two or more words). (a) = acronym in the example: SARS - (a) severe acute respiratory syndrome (i) = initialism in the example: CD - (i) Compact disc (p) = pseudo-blend in the example: UNIFEM - (p) United Nations Development Fund for Women (pm) = portmanteau in the example: smog – (pm) combination of the words smoke and fog (s) = symbol (none of the above, stands for and is read as something else; for example: MHz - Megahertz) Symbols Symbols are often used as “shorthand” in medicine. Examples include – ∆ Change, diagnosis ↓ Deceased or decreased ↔ Back and forth, alternating, from here to there @ At > Greater than < Less than = Equals + Plus or


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