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OCtech BIO 117 - Animal form and function

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Intro: They coevolve They’re plastic Flexibility, ability to change during your lifetime, adaptability They’re imperfect Red tailed hawk Lay 2 different eggs at 2 different times The older one will be fed if it’s a bad food year Form and Function ultimate limits A. Single vs multiple cells a. A cell of a multicellular org can’t live on its own b. Animal cell closest to doing both is sponge cells B. Small vs large body a. Some single celled org can become bigger by becoming hollow i. Ex: Caulerpa algae C. Generalist vs specialist a. Specialist i. Problem: if something happens to your food source, you are screwed D. Endothermy vs ectothermy a. Endothermy: all functions based on temperature i. Slower and colder- too cold stop existing ii. Better heat = function better iii. Create own heat iv. Terribly efficient b. Ectothermy: i. Much lower energy lifestyle ii. Too hot, go get shade iii. Don’t need as much water or prey to stay alive iv. Have bigger temp window to work with v. Hides out until temperature is better E. Quality vs quantity a. Lots of expensive energy into potentially successful children or less quality but more? Major determinants of evolutionary innovation in morphological design -Surface area to volume ratio Vol inc faster than SA Less oxygen available per unit vol of cell mass w inc in size What other things change with inc in size? Heat loss rate decDehydration rate dec Ultimate number of predators dec Number shelter options dec Absolute amt of food and water needed inc BUT Mouse has much larger volume than its SA- heat loss and water loss problem Compared to elephant Less predators, not in danger of dying Mouse eats much more than elephant relative to how heavy it is Bergman’s Law The farther you get from equator, the bigger your body gets Colder, want to hold onto heat = bigger Canadian deer much bigger than Mexican deer Allen’s Rule Near equator: appendages (legs and arms) longer and slenderer SA heat problem Shorter + bigger -> don’t lose heat as quickly Farther -> shorter + bigger around -Energy source variability Diff E sources demand diff, incompatible adaptations to access No animal can photosynthesis and no plant eat animals -Environmental variability Diff environments demand diff suites of adaptations Animals can’t master land without compromising aquatic life Animal cell/ tissue specialization All have same genetic info and basic cellular components A. Connective tissues a. Secrete extracellular matrix that contributes to tissue function B. Nervous tissue a. generate/conduct electrochemical signals between cells C. Muscle tissue a. Ability to contract >> move animal structure D. Epithelial tissue a. 2 sided cells that line the surfaces of the organism >> an interface b/w inner/outer surfaces of glands and organs within the organism b. Function of the opp sides of these cells can be differentOrgans and organ systems Organs: 2 or more tissue types and generally perform 1 or few diff functions 12 systems named in humans Nomenclature problems because overlapping structure and function 4 broad groups A. Resource systems a. Supply basic resources for maintenance of immediate life process i. Oxygen, E, waste elimination b. Digestive, respiratory, urinary system B. Service systems a. Resource distribution, physical support, protection, repair b. Cardiovascular, skeletal, muscular, integumentary i. Integumentary: external connective tissue, ii. Water conservation and strength C. Regulatory/ control systems a. Info reg, analysis, transfer b. Nervous, endocrine D. Reproduction a. Reproductive system Evolutionary generalities in form/function across animal phyla and over geological time A. Inc body size B. Cephalization a. Movement and conc of neutral control centers and sensory receptors in movement b. Inc bilateral symmetry and placement of organs c. Improved orientation of movement C. Graudal autonomy of behavior from strict genetic control D. Inc complexity of predator/prey strategies E. Inc symbiotic

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