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UB PGY 300 - Cardio Notes

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● What is the main function of the cardiovascular system? Transport ● How does the cardiovascualr system maintain homeostasis? ○ Bring in oxygen from the lungs ○ Get rid of carbon dioxide ● What is transported throughout the body? ○ Oxygen ○ Food ○ Water ○ Nutrients ○ Metabolic waste to be secreted ○ Hormones ● What does the body do to produce energy? ○ The body consumes oxygen and combines it with food ○ O2 + food = energy + CO2 + H2O ● What is cardiac output? ○ Blood to an entire system, some systems need more blood than others ● Central circulation ○ Involves heart and major blood vessels ○ propulsive organ that forces blood through the body (the heart) ○ Arterial system that distributes blood and acts as a pressure reservoir ○ Capillaries where the transfer of materials between blood and tissure occurs ○ Venous system that acts as a blood storage resevoir and as a system for returning blood to the heart ● Peripheral circulation ○ Blood vessels ○ Distribute blood to various tissues ○ Carries blood ○ Exchanges nutrients, waste products, and gases with tissues ○ Helps regulate blood pressure ● Heart ○ Is a muscle ○ Generates pressure by muscle contraction to move blood ○ Including pulmonary/systemic circulation ○ Pump blood through blood vessels (closed circuit) ○ Compliant with little resistance ● Overall design of the Circulation ○ Pump: delivery tubes ○ Heart and blood vessels ○ Closed circuit: Blood re-circulation ■ Pulmonary circulation ■ Systemic circulation ○ Circulating fluid is blood (Water + RBC) ○ System operates by pressure differences (deltaP) ■ Generated by heart and regulated by blood vessles ○ Valves determine the direction of flow ● Arterial system: away from the heart● Venous system: return to the heart ● Components of blood ○ Water: allows heart to generate pressure ○ 41% Red Blood Cells: carry oxygen and CO2 ○ 55% Plasma: llows water to compress to generate hydrostatic pressure in order to move circulation ○ 4% White Blood Cells ○ Various ions and organic molecules in blood ● Flow of blood: High to Low pressure ● Systemic circulation ○ Carries oxygenated blood from left side of the heart to the rest of the body ○ Systemic arteries are small in diameter ○ high pressure is required to push blood through the arteries, thus high resistance ● Pulmonary circulation: moves blood between the heart and the lungs ○ Oxygenates blood: Takes deoxygenated blood from right side of the heart into the lungs ○ less demanding because there is only one organ involved (lungs) ○ Has large vessels with low resistance, thus low pressure ● What is the job of the valves in the heart? prevent the backflow of blood ● Venous return: is the flow of blood back to the heart ○ Venous return must equal cardiac output (CO) ○ High compliance: capacity ○ Increased volume change = decreased pressure change ○ Venous return from systemic system to right side of heart ○ CO return from pulmonary system to left side of heart (check this ??) ○ Flow in and out of heart must be equal ● What is true about the overall design of circulation? Heart generates pressure in order to pump blood through circulation ● Veins ○ Low resistance and low pressure ○ Compliant (stretchable) ○ You can increased the volume of blood in veins without raising the pressure that much ○ Return blood to vena cava ○ Amount of compliance varies, causing pressure to change ● Red Blood cells ○ Carries oxygen ○ Heavy ○ Made of hemoglobin ○ Must conform to go thru certain blood vessels ● White Blood Cells: Fights infection ● Platelets: Small discs that are transported to ruptured site of circulation to coagulate ● Plasma: Allows water to compress to generate hydrostatic pressure in order to move circulation ● How much blood is in the human body? 5-6L, proportionate to body size ● Blood components between males and females 1. Hematocrit: M>F 2. Hemoglobin: M>F3. Red Blood cells: M>F 4. White Blood Cells: M=F 5. Platelets: M=F 6. Total blood volume: M>F ● What is the lifespan of Red Blood Cells? ○ 2-4 weeks ○ Destroyed in spleen ○ Synthesized in bone marrow ○ Constantly have to make RBC ● What happens if there are insufficient blood cells? Cannot have oxygen transport, resulting in less oxygen in the blood, i.e. anemia ● How is oxygen transported through the blood? ○ Oxygen binds to 4 attachment proteins on RBC ○ The higher the RBC count, the more oxygen you can transport ● Determinate of blood flow ○ Blood flows in the aorta and flow out the arterioles ● What is blood flow equal to? ○ DeltaP/R ● Veins have large radii (low resistance) while Arteries have small radii (high resistance) ● Blood vessels lenghten as we grow, causing resistance to increase and viscosity (thickness) to change ● What does variable resistance determine? ○ Whether a particular tissue gets a high or low blood flow ○ Arterial pressure is constant to all tissues ○ Resistance determines blood flow ● What will happen if there is high pressure in the heart and high pressure in the periphery? There will be no blood flow because there is no difference ● Pulmonary circulation must be LOWER than Systemic circulation. ● What happens when the left lung and diaphragm move? Changes the pressure in the chest wall because the heart sits between these two structures ● Pericardium: protective sac around the heart ● Myocardium: Muscle of the heart ● Epicardium: Epithelium ● Vessels that carry oxygenated blood are RED and those with less oxygenated blood are BLUE ● Pulmonary arteries: There are four ○ 2 anterior- L and R ○ 2 posterior- L and R, come off of aorta ● Where do vessels in the aortic arch carry blood to? The brain ● Flow of blood through heart ○ Blood enters heart from vena cava into Right Atrium, developing pressure ○ pressure increases and pushes blood thru Tricuspid Valve (or right atrioventricualr) into Right Ventricle ○ When RV


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