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UA PLP 150C1 - Mycological Terms for First Exam

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Mushrooms, Molds, and ManMycological (and other) terms for the First Exam1. Fungus: any organism in the Kingdom Fungi2. Fungus-like organism: several groups of organisms in the Kingdoms Protista (the slime molds) and Chromista (or Stramenopila, the water molds) that resemble Fungi3. Achlorophylous: not having chlorophyll4. Mushroom: there are two uses for this word. One is general, any soft, fleshy, macroscopic fruiting body of a fungus. Most are basidiomycetes, but a few notable ascomycetes. The second term is more specific. It is used to describe any “toadstool-like” fruiting body in the Division Basidiomycota that are an agaric or bolete. For example:Note: one has gills (the agaric) and one has pores (the bolete) 5. Parts of a mushroom: the pileus (the cap), the stipe (the stem), and the lamellae (gills or pores depending on the species). Some mushroom also have an annulus and a volva (diagnostic for the poisonous Amanita mushrooms, an agaric).6. Shelf or bracket fungus: possesses a fruiting body that lies horizontally, parallel to the ground, often disc shaped. May be soft (a mushroom) or hard and woody (a conk). Most grow from wood. Most have pores rather than gills. Many are perennial and have yearly growth rings. Nearly all are basidiomycetes.7. Molds: fungi growing in the filamentous form (not a mushroom). Nearly all fungi are molds for much of their life cycle. More commonly, the term mold is used for filamentous fungi that do not produce large macroscopic fruiting bodies.8. Yeast: a unicellular fungus in the Ascomycota. Saccharomycete is the genus most knownfor brewing and breadmaking. Some species can form very primitive mycelia.9. Cup fungi: small fleshy cups (many have stalks) that bear fungal spores inside the cup area. Most are Ascomycetes.10. Jelly fungi: just like they sound…the are gelatinous. Basidiomycetes with the hymeniumon the outside covering the jelly structure.11. Downy mildew fungi: very special type if oomycetes (so they are not really fungi!!!). Closely related to the pathogen causing late blight of potato.12. Mycorrhizal fungi: one of two types of plant root associated fungi. Endomycorrhizal fungi are zygomycetes that live primarily inside of a plant root. Ectomycorrhizal fungi are basidiomycetes (and some ascomycetes) that live primarily outside of but surroundinga plant root. Both type are critical for plant root health and development.13. Rust fungi : a filamentous basidiomycete that causes rust-like symptoms on plants of all types. In grains it is particularly destructive. Produces teleospores in the place of basidiocarps, and the basidiospores are formed on the teleospore.14. Powdery mildew fungi: a filamentous ascomycete that causes white dry powdery symptoms on plants of all types. Produces abundant conidia during the growing season and produces ascospores at the end of the growing season.15. Lichen: are composite organisms consisting of a symbiotic association of a fungus (the mycobiont) with a photosynthetic partner (the photobiont or phycobiont), usually either a green alga or cyanobacterium. The morphology, physiology and biochemistry of lichens are very different from those of either the isolated fungus and alga in culture.16. Hypha (hyphae pl.): the thread like filaments that make up most of the fungus’ body. One cell in diameter.17. Mycelia: a conglomeration of hyphae18. Colony: a single individual mold growing by itself. A mycelia mat. This has a different meaning than in bacteriology where a colony is actually a colony of individual cells.19. Septum (septa pl): a division or barrier in the hyphae that separates individual cells alongthe length. May be part of the cell wall or of other material.20. Coenocytic: the condition of a hyphae without septa21. Spore: one of a number of types of reproductive structures born at the end or in the middle of specialized hyphae. May be unicellular or multicellular. Most are sort of round, but some have bizarre shapes. Most are wind dispersed but some are sticky.22. Conidia: an asexual spore born at the end of a hyphal filament23. Clamydospore: an asexual spore born in the middle of a hyphal filament from a normal vegetative cell that rounds up and becomes thick-walled.24. Flagella: tiny whip-like appendages that help microbes move around25. Zoospore: the flagellated spores of the Chytridiomycota and oomycetes in the kingdom Chromista26. Zygospore: the sexual spore of zygomycetes.27. Ascospore: the sexual spore of ascomycetes28. Basidiospore: the sexual spore of basidiomycetes29. Oospore: the sexual spore of oomycetes (Chromista)30. Basidiocarp: a large fruiting body of a basidiomycete.31. Ascocarp: a large fruiting body of an ascomycete.32. Hymenium: the fertile spore-bearing layer of a mushroom or conk.33. Sclerotia: a small mass of compact, melanized fungal cells that can detach from the fungus, lay in the soil for long periods of time, and then germinate at a later date.34. Haustorium: a absorptive structure used by biotrophic fungi to obtain nutrients from a plant cell without killing it.35. Haploid and diploid: the nuclear state of any cell; having single or paired chromosomes36. Taxonomy: the process by which “things” are grouped together based upon common characteristics and then given names.37. Damping-off: a disease in which the seedling dies either before it emerges (pre-emergent damping off) or after it emerges from the ground (post-emergent damping off).38. Vascular wilt fungus: a fungus that invades a plants vascular system and clogs it up withspores and hyphae, and also with plant responses like gums, gels, and tyloses.39. Phytophthora infestans: an Oomycte, causal agent of the disease late blight of potato40. Phylogeny/phylogenetics: a proposal for organizing all organisms based upon their evolutionary relationships/ the study of


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