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CORNELL HADM 4300 - HADM 4300 Prelim 1 Study Guide

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HADM 4300 PRELIM 1 STUDY GUIDE HI LISAAA!!!!!! ITS YOUR BFF ERIC :) helllooooooooooooo!Components, Winemaking, Viticulture, Wine Service, Wine BuyingWhat information is listed on a wine label?o Who made the wine, Where was it made, When was it made (vintage year), What is in the bottle (grape variety)o And possibly some indication of special handling, ranking or classification.What are the major differences between how white and red wines are made?o MAJOR DIFFERENCE: The skins are removed from the juice much earlier in white wines than in red wines. That is whywhite wines have significantly less tannins. Red wine fermentation has skin contact, white does not. Vatting occurs in redwine (pumping of skins, pulp, and juice into fermentation tank). Red wines are bottle aged twice.Which VITICULTURAL (grape growing) and VINICULTURAL (winemaking) practices effect a wine’s concentration, quality,flavor and price?Viticulture = grape growingo Refers to temperature, soil (terroir), rainfall (irrigation), health of rootstock, picking the harvest, transport to wineryo grape varietyo age of vine: affects yield, intensity, and complexity▪ 3 year after planting yields the first grape crop (very basic juice)▪ 5-15 yrs the vines are prolific and begin to develop more complex flavors▪ 30-50 yrs the yields decline but the concentration of flavors continue▪ 50-100 yrs the vines have very low yieldso density of plantingo yield/care: affects quality and priceo soil type, topography, microclimate (water): affects wine quality▪ microclimate: rain, average daily temperature, number of daylight hours, length of growing season▪ site: soil, slope, elevation, drainage, orientation to the sun→ marginal climates sometimes produce unique wines but vintage variation is significanto land and labor costsViniculture = wine making (science and skill)o Refers to the influence and capability of the winemaker, which includes:o equipment and facilities ($$$) and production capacity and demandWhat do the various grape components contribute to the finished wine?o Skin: tannins, color, Stalk: tannins, Pulp: sugar, fruit acids, water, pectin, Pips: butter, oakWhat are the major components in wine and how do these influence taste, texture, and shelf life?● Alcohol: o Affects body (high alcohol = high body), mouth-feel, and storage lifeo Wines too high in alcohol will taste “hot” and give a burning sensation▪ Fortified wines: have alcohol added in the form of brandy (grape neutral spirit)● Sugar: yields alcoholo Amount of sugar (potential alcohol) depends on ripeness of grape at harvest● Organic acids (tartaric, malic, lactic, citric)o Contribute to crispness, structure, and balanceo Levels of acidity affect taste (flabby/flat, crispy/fresh, harsh/sour)● Watero Water makes up 85% or more of table wines● Residual Sugaro Residual sugar balances high acidityo Wines with less than 4% sugar = technically dryo Wines with high acidity can appear dry to the taste even though they have residual sugar● Grape Skino Anthocyanins: provide color in red winePage 1 of 15o Tannins: provide structure and aging potential, mouth drying/bitternesso Resveratrol: antioxidant in wine; believed to be effective in lowering cholesterolHow does the winemaker shape or adjust various components in wine?o Fortification: add alcohol in the form of a grape neutral spirit (brandy)o Chaptalization: addition of sugar to the grape in order to boost the natural sugar level and produce a higher alcohol levelo Done in cool growing regionso Malolactic Fermentation: a secondary fermentationo High levels of malic acid converted to a softer lactic acido Produces byproducts such as glycerol (fatness) and diacetyl (buttery)o Acidification: the addition of acid (usually tartaric) to the finished wineo Done in warm growing regions, where the natural acidity in the grapes is lowo Amelioration: the addition of water and sugar to the grape must to dilute acidity and boost the alcohol in the finished wineo Practice used in NYS’s cooler wine regionsHow do we evaluate wines? SIGHTo Appearance: Brilliant, clear, dull, cloudy, precipitated o Appearance of a wine is judged upon whether or not the wine seems clear or contains sediment/suspended materialo Color: wines obtain color from the presence of flavonoid compounds that are present in the skins and flesh of the grapeso White table wines:▪ Pale yellow/green, light yellow (straw), medium yellow, light gold, medium gold,▪ Possible defect: amber to brown coloro Red wines: lose color as they age (goes from purple/red to ruby to brick red to tawny to brown)o Amber wines: varying amounts of brown▪ Usually result from the action of oxygen on the wines (overaging, over action, heating, overripe grapes)SMELLo Aroma: fragrance associate with the grape varietyo Fruit, vegetable, spices, mineralso Bouquet: fragrances developed in the wine making and aging processo With bottle and barrel age, the bouquet changeso Wood influence: vanilla, toasty, smoky, spice, butter, coconutTASTEo Taste: our sense of taste is really dependent on our sense of smello Taste 4 things: sweet, sour, salt, bittero Progression of taste recognition on the palate as we evaluate wine▪ 1st fruitiness (sweetness)▪ 2nd acidity (sourness)▪ 3rd bitterness if it exists is generally perceived last o Body—non-sugar solids of wine▪ Body is not primarily detected by taste but rather by the receptors sensitive to viscosity and salto Flavors: term used to describe the complex impression on the palate created when the wine is worked over in the moutho Varietal: impression of varietal aroma o Alcohol: sensory impression of the alcohol content, weak or strong/headyo Age: age may be approximately determined (young, mature-with bouquet, aged-bottle bouquet)o General terms:▪ Fruity, Stemmy, Grassy, Metallic, Bacterial, Fresh, Clean, Tired, Yeasty, Well-balanced, Unbalanced,Burnt, Rubbery, Nutty, FoxyWhat are the varietal (aroma & flavor) characteristics of the major grape varieties tasted in class?White Wines- GEWURZTRAMINER: o Spicy, geranium, honeysuckle, cinnamon, ginger, grapefruit, apricot, lemon, banana, orange, peach, melon,pineapple, apple, lychee fruit, roses- SAUVIGNON BLANC: o Grassy, herbaceous, bell pepper, gun metal powder, green olive, black pepper, grapefruit, fig - CHARDONNAY: Page 2 of 15o Apple, toasty, vanilla, lemon, sweet clove, buttery or creamy, figs, melons,


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