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UMass Amherst ANTHRO 100 - Quiz 3 Study Guide

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ANT 103-Holt-Fall 2019Quiz 3 Study ObjectivesThe following 19 objectives are based on lecture notes since Exam 2, Chapters 7 (Nonhuman Primate Models for the Evolution of Human Behavior or pp. 203-223), 9 and 10, the videos watched in lab, and lab worksheets 8, 9, and 10. Note that the lecture from October 28 (Primate Models and the Evolution of Human Behavior is included)1. What is relative and absolute dating? What are biostratigraphy and paleomagnetic dating? What is the principle underlying radiometric dating? How do the Carbon-14 and Potassium-Argon methods differ (type of material, time range, etc..)? What is meant by “half-life”? What are: Law of superposition, index fossil, isotopes, taphonomy, radio-carbon dating, potassium-argon dating, stratigraphy?2. How are stable oxygen isotope, pollens and faunal remains used to reconstruct paleoenvironments?3. How can the thickness and shape tell us about the behavior of past humans? What do microwear and isotopes methods tell us about diet? 4. What does information about brain size increase, tool use and prosocial behavior tell us abouthominin evolution? What is encephalization? What are the two models explaining the fact that apes have larger neocortex size? What are aspects of chimp cooperative behavior resemble human behavior?5. What are the first two traits differentiating hominins from other apes to appear in the fossil record? 6. What challenges does walking upright pose? What anatomical traits (eg, position of the foramen magnum, shape of the pelvis, etc…) evolved to transform hominins into efficient bipeds? When does bipedal locomotion appear in the fossil record? 7. You should know the following early hominins: Sahelanthropus tchadensis, Ardipithecus ramidus, Australopithecus afarensis, Australopithecus africanus, Australopithecus robustus, and Australopithecus boisei. Know which sites these come from and their dates. 8. What is ape like and human like in these early hominins? What evidence do we have that Ardipithecus spent a lot of time in the trees?9. Why did the fossil from Taung (Australopithecus africanus) prove Darwin right about the 1ANT 103-Holt-Fall 2019location of hominin origins? Where and when was it discovered? Based on the video you watched (When Humans were Prey), why is the Taung child important to our understanding of human evolution? What did paleoanthropologists originally believe about early hominin behavior? What did later evidence show? 10. You should know where in Africa these sites are and which hominin species are found there:Taung, Hadar, Laetoli, Dikika, Swartkrans, Olduvai Gorge, Sterkfontein.11. When did apes arise? What are some of their defining features? What was their global distribution? 12. What was the climate and habitat like during the Miocene and Pliocene? What primates aroseduring this time? When were these epochs?13. You should know the following anatomical traits: Brow ridges, sagittal crest, prognathism, anterior and posterior foramen magnum, parallel vs valgus knees, non-honing and honing canines, narrow vs broad thorax, Objectives from lab: 14. Review the videos from labs 8, 9 and 10 15. Know the characteristics of bipedalism, e.g. Lucy’s ape and hominin characteristics.16. What are Lucy’s “mosaic” characteristics? What characteristics did she share with chimpanzees? What characteristics did she share with other hominins and us? 17. Know details of all hominins – where they were discovered, what dates did they exist what characteristics did they have (e.g. cranial capacity (c.c.), position of the foramen magnum, dental morphology, diet, spine shape, etc)18. Who is Salem (Dikika site)? How old is the child? How do we know? 2ANT 103-Holt-Fall 201919. Understand the differences between robust and gracile Australopithecines. What can their cranial characteristics tell us about their diet and

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