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UMass Amherst ANTHRO 100 - Exam 3 Study Guide

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ANT 103-Holt-Fall 2019Exam 3 Study ObjectivesThe following 38 objectives are based on lecture notes since Exam 2, Chapters 7 (Nonhuman Primate Models for the Evolution of Human Behavior or pp. 203-223), 9, 10, 11, 12,and13, the videos watched in lab, and lab worksheets 8, 9, 10, 11 and 12. Note that the lecture from October28 (Primate Models and the Evolution of Human Behavior is included). Objectives 1-13 and 28-33 are from Quiz 3.1. What is relative and absolute dating? What are biostratigraphy and paleomagnetic dating? What is the principle underlying radiometric dating? How do the Carbon-14 and Potassium-Argon methods differ (type of material, time range, etc..)? What is meant by “half-life”? What are: Law of superposition, index fossil, isotopes, taphonomy, radio-carbon dating, potassium-argon dating, stratigraphy?2. How are stable oxygen isotope, pollens and faunal remains used to reconstruct paleoenvironments?3. How can the thickness and shape tell us about the behavior of past humans? What do microwear and isotopes methods tell us about diet? 4. What does information about brain size increase, tool use and prosocial behavior tell us abouthominin evolution? What is encephalization? What are the two models explaining the fact that apes have larger neocortex size? What are aspects of chimp cooperative behavior resemble human behavior?5. What are the first two traits differentiating hominins from other apes to appear in the fossil record? 6. What challenges does walking upright pose? What anatomical traits (eg, position of the foramen magnum, shape of the pelvis, etc…) evolved to transform hominins into efficient bipeds? When does bipedal locomotion appear in the fossil record? 7. You should know the following early hominins: Sahelanthropus tchadensis, Ardipithecus ramidus, Australopithecus afarensis, Australopithecus africanus, Australopithecus robustus, and Australopithecus boisei. Know which sites these come from and their dates. 8. What is ape like and human like in these early hominins? What evidence do we have that Ardipithecus spent a lot of time in the trees?1ANT 103-Holt-Fall 20199. Why did the fossil from Taung (Australopithecus africanus) prove Darwin right about the location of hominin origins? Where and when was it discovered? Based on the video you watched (When Humans were Prey), why is the Taung child important to our understanding of human evolution? What did paleoanthropologists originally believe about early hominin behavior? What did later evidence show? 10. You should know where in Africa these sites are and which hominin species are found there:Taung, Hadar, Laetoli, Dikika, Swartkrans, Olduvai Gorge, Sterkfontein.11. When did apes arise? What are some of their defining features? What was their global distribution? 12. What was the climate and habitat like during the Miocene and Pliocene? What primates aroseduring this time? When were these epochs?13. You should know the following anatomical traits: Brow ridges, sagittal crest, prognathism, anterior and posterior foramen magnum, parallel vs valgus knees, non-honing and honing canines, narrow vs broad thorax, 14. Where was the first specimen of Homo habilis found? Why did Louis Leakey place it in a new genus? What are the geographical and time ranges of Homo habilis?15. What evidence is there of arboreal adaptations in Homo habilis?16. What is the Oldowan culture? When and where is the first evidence of tool use found?17. What major change in diet had to happen in human evolution for brain size to increase? Whatanatomical evidence do we have from the fossil record of this change? What does the anatomy of the Nariokotome (Turkana Boy) skeleton tell us about changes in diet and behavior of Homo erectus? What evidence do we have for the evolution of extended childhood in Homo erectus?18. Where and when is Homo erectus found (sites named in class)? When did Homo erectus reach Asia and Europe? What modern human traits do we first see with Homo erectus? 19. Why are the following sites important: St Brelade, Schöningen?20. Where and when did Neandertals live? What are derived traits of Neandertal crania? How bigwas their brain? What evidence is there that they were adapted for cold conditions? What evidence do we have of Neandertal diet?2ANT 103-Holt-Fall 201921. Know what stone tool (e.g. lithics) traditions were made by each later Homo species (H. habilis, H. erectus, Neanderthals) and their respective lithic traditions (e.g. Oldowon, Achuelean, Mousterian - Levallois). What are bifacial points? How do brain size, behavior, and technology correlate? 22. What evidence is there that Neandertals buried their dead, took care of the old and sick, (Shanidar, La Chapelle)23. What is meant by anatomically modern humans (Cro-Magnon)? Where and when do they first appear? You should be familiar with the anatomy associated with modern humans.24. You should know the following anatomical traits: Brow ridges (supraorbital torus), sagittal crest, sagittal keel, prognathism, chin, occipital “bun”, “arctic” body proportions.25. Be familiar with the characteristics of Upper Paleolithic culture, as discussed in class. Why isblade technology an improvement? What kinds of tools are innovations associated with the Upper Paleolithic? When and where is the first evidence for symbolic behavior found? You should be familiar with the following sites: Herto, Pigeon Cave, Blombos, Sungir)26. What is meant by “ornament as information technology”? How is the evolution of symbolic behavior related to population size increase in modern humans?27. What evidence exists for the evolution of language? What is Foxp2?Objectives from lab: 28. Review the videos from labs 8, 9 and 10 29. Know the characteristics of bipedalism, e.g. Lucy’s ape and hominin characteristics.30. What are Lucy’s “mosaic” characteristics? What characteristics did she share with chimpanzees? What characteristics did she share with other hominins and us? 3ANT 103-Holt-Fall 201931. Know details of all hominins – where they were discovered, what dates did they exist what characteristics did they have (e.g. cranial capacity (c.c.), position of the foramen magnum, dental morphology, diet, spine shape, etc)32. Who is Salem (Dikika site)? How old is the child? How do we know? 33. Understand the differences between

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