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UMass Amherst ANTHRO 100 - Exam 2 study objectives

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ANT 103 -Fall 2019-HoltStudy Objectives for Exam 2The following 23 sets of objectives are based on lecture notes since Exam 1, Chapters 6 and 7, and labs 5, 6, and 7 Objectives 1-6 are from Quiz 21. What are the four “trends” that characterize primates? What primate adaptations are associated with each trend?2. Know the primate classification (lab worksheet) and basic characteristics of each group in that classification (Strepsirhines, Haplorhines, Old World monkeys, etc…). You should knowwhich primates make up each category and the example in parenthesis: Strepsirhines (lemurs and lorises), Haplorhines = Tarsier, Old World Monkeys (baboons), New World Monkeys (spider monkeys), Hominoids (gibbons, orangutans, gorillas, chimpanzees, bonobos, humans), and in which geographic area each is found (South America, Africa, Madagascar, Asia). 3. Be familiar with the following terms and concepts: stereoscopic vision/convergent eye orbits,dental formula, post-orbital bar, post-orbital closure, dental (tooth) comb, homodonty, heterodonty, insectivorous, folivorous, frugivorous, omnivorous, tooth cusp, diurnal, nocturnal, prehensile (grasping) hands and feet, neocortex, adaptive radiation. 4. Know the following terms: Homology, homoplasy, derived and ancestral (primitive) traits, phylogeny, clade.5. Be able to classify yourself as discussed in lecture6. What are the “Visual Predation” and “Angiosperm” hypotheses of primate origins? What traits does each emphasize?7. What is sexual selection? How does sexual selection in primates results in sexual dimorphism?8. What are Darwin’s four “hostile forces”? What physical and behavioral traits have primate evolved in response to these selective forces? What anatomical correlates can be used to infer these adaptations in extinct primates? What are the components of an animal’s “energy budget”? What is meant by “life history”?9. What are the costs and benefits of sociality/living in groups? What is Alloparenting? 1ANT 103 -Fall 2019-Holt10. Relating to primate anatomy: how do folivores, frugivores, and insectivores differ in body size, tooth cusps pattern and home range size (see also Objective #18)11. Know general information about Kinda baboons. What types of groups do they live in? Howdoes their body size compare to other baboons? What sex does the majority of the grooming? 12. How do we define baboon “friendships”? What are the main theories that explain why malesmake friendships compared to why females make friendship?13. How do primate male and female reproductive strategies differ? What factors affect reproductive success in female primates? How is infanticide a strategy for males? Know what types of mating systems we see in different types of primate groups (multi-male multi-female, one male many females etc….Objectives from Discussion/Lab14. Understand anatomical differences for classifying different primates including: dental formulas, post-orbital bar, post-orbital closure15. Know the difference between primitive traits and derived traits (e.g. those seen in Strepsirhines vs those seen in Haplorhines, respectively)-See Objective 2 above16. Know what traits belong to the primate suborders, infraorders, and super families. For example, Hominoidea (apes) do not have tails, and only Platyrrhines have prehensile tails, and so on) 17. Know the dental formulas of Strepsirhines, Platyrrhines (New World monkeys), and Catarrhines (Old World monkeys, apes and humans).18. Know the dental characteristics associated with feeding ecology (e.g. frugivore, folivore, insectivore/faunivore)19. Know the types of habitat disturbances (habitat loss, habitat fragmentation, habitat modification) and how they threaten primate communities (e.g. zoonoses, genetic drift, difficulty finding resources - food and mates, decreased ranging ability)20. Know how to calculate sexual dimorphism and mating systems 2ANT 103 -Fall 2019-Holt21. Know about Gigantopithecus - what was its behavior and ecology like? why did it go extinct? how does it compare to gorillas? 22. How do we tell the difference between diurnal and nocturnal primates? (e.g. optic nerve ratio, visual acuity, etc)23. What is the intermembral index and what does it tell us about locomotion? What are the types of

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