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UA ACCT 200 - First Mid-term Exam Study Guide

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Anth 160D2Spring semester 2020Study Guide, First mid-term exam (Feb. 11)Note: This is a study aid, not a comprehensive list of exam question topics. Be especially certain that you understand those terms, definitions and concepts that were highlighted during lectures.How do anthropologists define culture, and what do they mean when they say they study humansvia a biocultural approach?Homo Sapiens Homo – genus name Sapiens – trivial name Culture: information learned and transmitted among individuals, across generations, software nothardware, learned not innate, absolutely dependent on it Capacity for culture is; hardware, innate, similar in all healthy humans The Biological Approach1. The human condition is the joint product of human biology and human culture 2. We might emphasize one or the other but ultimately the human condition can only be understood with reference to both biology and culture - How do biology and culture affect the human phenotype?o Biology (similarities)  Bipedalism, big brains, language ability, dependence on culture/tool use, hand structure o Culture (differences)  Nature of language  Foodways  Government  Family structure  Religion  Economy - How do biology and culture interacto Many cultural practices directly influence survival and reproduction, while the capacity to receive, act on and transmit cultural information is biological many cultural practices effect the development of those capacities Lectures and web readings presented a number of important scientists whose thoughts contributed to (or clashed with) early evolutionary thought of the 19th century. You should be able to match the scientists’ names with the theories and ideas they proposed or with which they are identified. - C. Darwin – evolution by natural selection, differential reproductive success & transmission of heritable traits, environment as filter, fitness varies withenvironment/context, environment does not shape organisms directly or produce variation: selection acts on existing on variation, small differences accumulate in populations gradually over long periods, eventually giving rise to new species - A.R. Wallace – came to the idea on his own helped Darwin with his book - J.-B. Lamarck – first great evolutionist, coined term biology, environmental stresses cause changes in the organism, thought acquired traits could be passed to offspring, internal drive to perfection, divinely instilled - C. Lyell – gradualism, very old earth, formed slowly by processes observable today - J. Hutton – uniformitarianism, the physical world was the same in the past as today - Cuvier – catastrophism, young earth formed by catastrophic events - G. Mendel – source of variation, mechanism of transmission - G. Malthus – populations grew faster than resource base, population increase leads to competition, struggle for survival- C. Linnaeus – system for classifying living beings (that reflects divine plan) Genetics- To the level of detail provided by the text and lectures, know the characteristics of DNA o Epigenetics - environment of parents can influence gene expression among offspring, and even grandchildren o Classical genetics- studies patterns of character expression in organisms, from this, deduced many basic characteristics of genes and how they interact o Molecular genetics – examines molecules, chemical interaction that result in biological inheritance o Nuclear DNA found in cell nucleus o DNA organized into chromosomes o Male X,Y and Female X, X- Know the basic facts about the human genome (size, number of chromosomes, etc.)o Human somatic cells have 23 homologous pairs of chromosomes o 22 human chromosomes pairs are autosomeso Gene – segment of DNA containing codes for making a specific protein, 100s to 1000s of base pairs, bounded by stop codons, UAA, UAG, UGA o Special case – regulatory genes, turn other genes on or off, permanently or temporarily, stem cells before regulatory genes turn parts of the genome off o Protein synthesis – sequences of three bases codes for one of 20 amino acids o RNA plays active role in turning genes on and off, even overriding gene expression o Human genome consists of ca. 3 billion base pairs o DNA replication and inheritance  Mitosis – production of somatic cells  Meiosis – production of gametes (sperm egg) o Sexual reproduction results in many sources of variation on which selection operates Recombining traits expands variation in chemistry of cells and bodies. Makes populations more adaptable, also increases likelihood that some members of a population will be able to resist disease pathogenso Dominant traits always expressed when present o Recessive traits from one parent “hidden” in next generation, unless alleles inherited from both parents - What is genotype, and what is its relation to phenotype?o Genotype - Genetic “identity” of organism composition of its DNA o Phenotype – physical characteristics of organism, expression of genotype, may include some kinds of behavior as well  Phenotype also influenced by differential gene expression, gene interaction, environment, developmental factors - What were G. Mendel’s important contributions to classical genetics?o Principle of Segregation  Inheritance is particulate in nature - Not blended  One discrete unit inherited from each parent, now know to be a result of meiosis o Principle of independent assortment o Simple Mendelian system  Single locus, two alleles (alternative forms), one dominant Traits inherited independently especially if on a separate chromosomes - What are examples of common genetic polymorphisms in human populations?o Separation of sexes, male and female, blood type, sickle cell anemia, favism - How are polygenic and Mendelian traits different, and what examples were discussed in class?o Discrete Traits  Simple inheritance, one gene locus  Usually invisible (biochemical)  Either/or, distinct classes  Little environmental influence o Polygenic Traits  Complex inheritance, Many gene loci  Often visible (physical)  Continuous, normal distribution  Much environmental influence Basic principles of population genetics- Where does genetic diversity come from?o Production and redistribution of heritable variation, natural selection and other forces act on variation o Microevolution – changes in gene frequencies from one generation to the next o Macroevolution: emergence of new


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