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USC PPD 225 - PPD 225 Midterm Study Guide

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PPD 225 Midterm Study GuideFall 2018Janna KingBe prepared to define and give the significance of the following terms1. Public policy- Relatively stable set of government actions that address matters of concern to some part of society. Significance: real estate because one must adhere to city regulations in order to develop land. Business must work with gov laws to maximize profit while still remaining beneficial to society (as outlined in policy)2. Elected official- elected by voters through elections. Significance: Elected officials are perceived as more legitimate, thus increasing the public faith in government 3. Appointed official- selected by elected officials/ or by appointed officials. 4. Federalism- system of government which state(gov) shares power with the national (gov) . The same people and territory are included in both levels of governmentThe nation’s constitution protects units at each level of government from encroachment by the other units. Each unit is in a position to exert some leverage over the other(s)5. Judicial review- the power of the courts to declare an act of Congress- or an act by the states- to be unconstitutional and, therefore, unenforceable in their court.6. Civil liberties- freedom of the citizen to exercise customary freedoms (bill of rights) Born with and common to everyone . a. Ex: Freedom of expression, religion, freedom to earn a living,no cruel/unusual punishment, right to bear arms, freedom of the press/freedom of assembly7. Civil rights- Guarantees that government will treat every individual equally, and thatdecision will be made based on merit rather than personal characteristics. a. Right to a speedy public trial, democratic right to vote, equal protections clause, right to a public education. Right to use public areas/services8. Disparate impact- refers to practices in employment, housing, and other areas that adversely affect one group of people of a protected characteristic more than another, even though rules applied by employers or landlords are formally neutrala. Not allowing criminals to vote may have a disparate impact on African-Americans who are disproportionately incarcerated in the US.b. a fire department requiring applicants to carry a 100 lb pack up three flights of stairs. The upper-body strength required typically has an adverse impact on women. The fire department would have to show that this requirement is necessary and job-related9. Strict scrutiny- government must prove that law is narrowly tailored to pursue compelling gov interesta. Affirmative Action10. Representation-promoting and supporting constituents’ interests11. Pork-barrel politics- spending which is intended to benefit a politician for political support12. Bicameral- legislative body having two branches or chambers 13. Rules committee- house of rep being in charge of determining what rules will/will not come to the floor 14. Gate-keeping- blocking or allowing bills to the floor for a vote. Committees in the house using the right and power to decide if a change in policy will be considered.15. Agenda-setting- controlling amendments and amount of debate allowed for bills that go to the floor for voting 16. Filibuster- the right to unlimited debate in the senate, 60 votes to be able to stop the debate/proposal17. Cloture- when senate gets 60 votes to end filibuster18. Presidential veto- power the president has to refuse to approve a bill19. Party polarization- Extent to which political ideologies do not overlap between parties20. Executive order- rule or directive issued by the president without the cooperation of congress21. Political analysis- political strategists analyzing policies to come up with a policy that can survive the political process. (usually involves lots negotiation and compromise, and taking into account what the public will support)22. Policy analysis- Experts (economists, statisticians, etc.) analyzing policies to come up with an optimal policy/plan as they see it. (Usually based on lots of peer-reviewed/published scientific evidence)23. Budget reconciliation process- A legislative process of the United States Congress that allows expedited passage of certain budgetary legislation on spending, revenues, and the federal debt limit with a simple majority vote in both the house (218) votes and the Senate (51 votes) The following are questions to consider as you are studying:1. What is the classic textbook definition of public policy and what is one limitation/weakness of this definition?composite of laws, rules, regulations, and actions of government taken together... It does NOT include the significant role of the private sector2. Give several examples of “things governments do.”Taxes, Regulations, grants/subsidies, information, service perversion 3. Be prepared to identify government officials as either elected or appointed. Be preparedto identify which branch of government these officials are a part of. National Level ○ Elected Officials■ In the legislative branch (congress): senators and house members ■ In the executive branch: president and vice president○ Appointed Officials■ In the judicial branch: judges ■ In the executive branch: leadership and staff of appointed officials ● such as cabinet leadership and department heads (Sec of state, sec of interior, sec of education etc)State of CA ○ Elected Officials ■ In the legislative branch: senators and assembly members■ In the executive branch: governor, attorney general, state treasurer, etc. ■ In the judicial branch: some judges○ Appointed Officials■ In the executive branch: leadership and staff of most public agencies■ In the judicial branch: some judgesLA County○ Elected Officials■ Legislature: board of supervisors○ Appointed Officials■ Leadership and staff of county agencies and departmentsCity of LA○ Elected Officials■ City council ■ Mayor■ City attorney ■ City controller○ Appointed Officials■ Leadership and staff of city of LA departments and agencies 4. What are potential ways to hold appointed officials accountable to the will of the people? Provide at least three ways.legislative oversight, judicial oversight, presidential oversight, civil society, media (protests)5. Describe two different ways of defining limited government. How are they different and why does it matter?- government only has those powers explicitly mentioned in the constitution.- government has broad powers other than what is explicitly


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