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UA CJ 300 - Social Process and Control Theories

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10/3/2019Social Process and Control TheoriesSocial Learning TheorySocial Bonding and control theoriesSocial Labeling Theory10/3/2019Social Process and Control TheoriesDifferential association theoryo Edwin Sutherland (1930s-40s) Widely recognized as the most important criminologists of the 20th century  DAT= theory of individual criminal bx- Micro level theory -#1-3 & 8: Criminal behavior is learned through interaction with other persons within intimatepersonal groups, and this process involves thesame mechanisms as all learning.-#4-5: This learning includes (a) techniques of committing the crime (ranging from complicatedto simple) and (b) motives learned from definitions of the law.-#6-7: More definitions favoring violation of law -> delinquent behavior, and these differential associations may vary by modify -#9: Behavior is an expression of needs and values, but needs and values do not explain behavior (tautology) - Principle of differential associationo Definitions= attitudes about criminal behavior o Modalities of association : relationshipswith people Priority = first- Ex. Mom, dad  Frequency= more often- Ex. Family, Friends, Roommates  Duration= longer period of time- Ex. Family, Friends, Roommates Importance= greater intensity - Ex. Family, spouse But what about those” mechanisms of learning”? -> Burgess & Akers’ SLT (1996) Social Learning TheoryFounders: Burgess & Akers’- Mechanisms of learning o Imitation: “monkey see, monkey do”o Symbolic Interactionism: based on how language is learned based on symbols stopsign, ring, Alabama apparel - Principles of behavior modificationo Reinforcement (operant (voluntarily actions- big bang theory & classical conditioning (more training, less voluntarily) the office) o Schedules of reinforcement Receive award is going to affect behavioro Discriminative stimuli= good treats > badtreats 2 If you give someone something, they really really like it’s a better reward then something they are eh about- Operant: Skinner rat hitting pleasure instead of food - Classical: pavlov work with dogs Reinforcement(I) Punishment (D)Good +-students coming to class and receiving review points Bad +-additional choresBad -- don’t have to take out the trash Good --taking away cellphone - Definitionso Negative= against criminal behavior (pro-law)o Neutral= justifying criminal behavioro Positive= in support of criminal behavior(pro-crime)- What it comes down to: balance- Empirical validityo Strong support from research- Policy Implicationso Rehab3Positive Negative10/8/2019SLT= people are born good and they learn to be badSocial control/bonding theory= people are born bd and must be controlled in order to be good Labeling theory= whether born good or bad peopleare controlled by the reactions of others Social Bonding and control theories - Why don’t we all violate the rules? What keeps us from committing crimes?o Fear- how is my behavior going to affect my family Early control theories (1950s)o Reiss’ & Nye’s theories of internal and external controls o Sykes’ and Matza’s techniques of Neutralization and Drift (in and out of criminal behavior in our lifetime) ex. Try to stick around the speed limit, lateto class and have a test going to punch accelerator a little harder to get to class on time. o Direct control: your parents, school officials (external)o Indirect control: fear of disappointing those laying down the ground rules (parents, school officials) 4o Internal control: own sense of guilt thatguides your behavior Social Bonding Theory o Hirschi (1969)-o Strong social bonds= conformity o Weak social bonds= deviancyo 4 components 1. Attachment- Referring to how much you care for your friends, family, significant others, emotional bonds2. Belief - You’re more likely to share the definitions and attitudes of those around you3. Commitment- The difference between a one- night stand and marriage 4. Involvement - How active you are within this relationship. “Do you even have time to commit crime?”*can find strong social bonds in a gang= why thetheory is semi weak- Empirical validity o Quality of theory stands as a model todayo Variety of studies have generally found weak to moderate support for the theory as a whole Self-control theory 5- AKA general theory of crime- Gottfredson & Hirschi (1990s)- High self-control -> conformity to law- Low self-control -> deviance - Empirical validityo Difficult to test directlyo BUT logically consistent, parsimonious, and has a wide scopeo Empirically supported - Hirschi’s revised version of self-control theory (2004)o Self-controlled = social controlo Includes consequences for behavior Social Labeling TheoryLabeling Theory- The looking-glass self- See ourselves based on our relations with other people - Actual deviant behavior less important then who assigned the label and why- Primary deviance (rob a store crime before labeled) vs. secondary deviance (crime afteryou have been labeled)  Example: 14-year-old skips school, grandma says you’re just a hoodlum, escalate from skipping school to robbing, stealing cars - Empirical validityo Meh.- Policy Implications o Juvenile diversion programs6 Diversion movements: moving status offenders (crimes based on age: drinking underage, juvenile skipping school) from the juvenile CJ system to family service programs  Deinstitutionalization= only use incarceration from more severe offenses - Pre-trial intervention/delaying adjunction= programs from first-time, nonviolent, adult offenders 10/10Reintegrative Shaming Theory- Braithwaite (1989-1990s)- Shaming= social disapproval with the intention of invoking remorse for someone’s criminal and deviant behavior - Disintegrative shaming vs. reintegrative shaming - Disintegrative: shunning people from society, invoking remorse, not accepting them back. o Ex: sex offender registry - Reintegrative (restorative justice: policy implication): Society accepts that someone screwed up and says I know you made a mistake and did something you shouldn’t have; make some amends and we’ll accept you back produces lower crime rateso Ex: community service 7Social Conflict Theories Conflict theory - Multiple groups in society competing for resources, groups who have the most resources are the ones in power and make the rulesConflict theory of criminal behavior - Conflict is specifically a process of law- Lawmaking, lawbreaking, law enforcement Marxist Theoryo In capitalism, there is a


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