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# UA CJ 303 - Test Review 2

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Test Review 2 20 questions 7 multiple choice 4 true/ false 9 short answers - Generalization - Validity and reliability are and the different types- Sampling error- the amount of difference between thecharacteristics of the population and the sample chosen to study- Generalization- taking a small group and applying It to a population o Quantitative- amount of something, objective, deductive, applied, quicker, positivism, questionnaires/secondary data, dominant o Quality-nature of something, subjective, inductive, pure, longer, symbolic interactionism, ethnography/interviews, waning o Causality- the relation between two events or states of affairs in which one brings about or produce the other o Sampling error- the amount of difference between the characteristics of the population and the sample chosen to studyo Concomitant variation: covariance or a relationship must existo Temporal sequencing: cause must precede the effecto Elimination of rival factors: rival casual factors must be excluded.o Stratified and cluster sampling o Comparison chart YES NOo Independent v YES NOo Sample individuals Groups o Element unequal equal ValidityAccuracy- are you measuring what you want to measureInternal- what other variables may have accounts for the change External- how generalizable your findings are Reliability? Repeatability- consistency of a measuring instrument Random Number Chart 1. Make a list of everyone in the population2. Number everyone 3. Select a number from the random numbers chart to start4. Move horizontal or vertical on the random number charto Non-probability sampling (not random)- less money, convenient, type of research, cannot estimate amount of sampling error o Accidental sample – person on the street interviews o Quota sample- certain % of specific groupso Typical- case or purposeful sampleo Systematic sample- every nth person o snowballo Probability sampling (random)- powerful form, can determine the probability of anygiven element in population o Simpleo Stratified- political party influences on policy choice o Cluster- characteristics unrelated to theory(city)o Proportionate- percentages in study populationo Multi-stage cluster

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