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ASU BIO 201 - Study Guide PHSO M01 Exam #3

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Physio Study Guide for exam # 3 Chapter 11 Efferent Peripheral Nervous System: AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEMAn autonomic pathway consists of a two-neuron chain.All but one type of efferent fiber releases acetylcholine. Exception—post-ganglionic sympathetic fibers release norepinephrine.Know where sympathetic and parasympathetic fibers originate fromThe autonomic nervous system controls involuntary visceral organ activities, also the heart, lungs, blood vessels and endocrine glands.The sympathetic and parasympathetic systems inversely, dually innervate most visceral organs.The adrenal medulla is a modified part of the sympathetic nervous system releases epinephrine andsome norepinephrine.Several different receptor types are available for each autonomic neurotransmitter. Know where nicotinic, muscarinic, as well as 1, 2, 1, & 2 adrenergic receptors Know which adrenergic receptors are stimulatory and which are inhibitoryKnow that several regions of the central nervous system are involved in the control of autonomic activities.SOMATIC NERVOUS SYSTEMMotor neurons control skeletal muscle.Motor neurons are the final common pathway—single cell runs from CNS to skeletal muscle.Motor neurons and skeletal muscle fibers are chemically linked at neuromuscular junctions (motor end plate) which has nicotinic receptors—a chemically gated Na+ channel.Acetylcholine is the neuromuscular-junction neurotransmitter—motor neurons always release enough acetylcholine to initiate an action potential.Acetylcholinesterase ends acetylcholine activity at the neuromuscular junction.The neuromuscular junction is vulnerable to several chemical agents and diseases—If I tell you what the agent or disease does, you should be able to tell me the physical outcome. LIST OF KEY TERMSNE Alpha 1 & 2 adrenergic receptorsNE Beta 1 & 2 adrenergic receptorsacetylcholine (ACh)acetylcholinesterase (AchE)adrenal medullaadrenergic fibersagonistsbotulismcholinergic fiberscuraredual innerviationend-plate potentialfight-or-flight responsemotor end platemotor neuronsmuscle fibermuscarinic receptorsneuromuscular junctionnicotinic receptorsnoradrenalin norepinephrineorganophosphates Chapter 12 Muscle PhysiologySKELETAL MUSCLEWhy are muscles always paired?Skeletal muscle fibers are striated due to a highly organized internal arrangement.Myosin forms the thick filaments.Actin is the main structural component of the thin filaments.Know the structures of the skeletal sarcomere (contractile unit)—H zone, A band, I band, M line, Z line.What is the the role of T tubules in regard to an action potentialWhat is the role of the sarcoplasmic reticulum in muscle contractionKnow the details for mechanisms that trigger skeletal muscle contraction—from the activity at the neuromuscular junction through the movementof myosin and actin past each other!!! Know the role of troponin, tropomyosin, myosinDuring contraction, cycles of myosin cross-bridge binding and bending pull the thin filaments inward.Calcium is the link between excitation and contraction.Whole muscles are groups of muscle fibers bundled together and attached to bones. Know the differences between a muscle, fasicle, muscle fiber, myofibril How can the degree of tension by a muscle be controlledboth physiologically and what factors may influence muscle tension at least in theoryWhat is a motor unit, what is the advantage of controllinglots of fibers as compared to just a few How can the body maintain a prolonged (albeit relatively weak) skeletal contractions without tiringWhy is muscle tone importantThe number of fibers contracting within a muscle depends on the extent of motor unit recruitment.How long does a muscle action potential and a subsequent twitch last the tensionTwitch summation (and tetnus) results from a sustained elevation in cytosolic calcium.There is an optimal muscle length at which maximal tension can be developed.Muscle tension is transmitted to bone as the contractile component tightens the series-elastic component.The two primary types of contraction are isotonic and isometric.The velocity of shortening is related to the load.What are slow oxidative fibers, fast oxidative fibers, fast glycolytic fibers—i.e.where do they get their energy from, how thick and strong are they (relatively speaking) and what would they be used for.Interactive units of skeletal muscles, bones, and joints form lever systems.What are the three ways muscles can use to recycle ATP.Fatigue may be of muscle or central (CNS) origin.Increased oxygen consumption is necessary to recover from exercise.SMOOTH AND CARDIAC MUSCLESmooth and cardiac muscle share some basic propertieswith skeletal muscle, however, know how smooth muscle differs from skeletal in its microanatomy, innervation (the part of the nervous system that controls it and types of nerve endings, the mechanisms which initiate smooth muscle contractionSmooth muscle cells are small and unstriated.Smooth muscle cells are turned on by Ca++-dependent phosphorylation of myosin. Note: Be able to compare/contrast activation of smooth and skeletal muscle.Multiunit smooth muscle is neurogenic.Single-unit smooth muscle cells form functional syncytia.Single-unit smooth muscle is often myogenic.Gradation of single-unit smooth muscle contraction differs from that of skeletal muscle.Smooth muscle can still develop tension yet inherently relaxes when stretched.Smooth muscle is slow and economical.Cardiac muscle blends features of both skeletal and smooth muscle.Cardiac muscle fibers have striationsCardiac muscle fibers have extended action potentials (why?)What are the purpose of gap junctions in cardiac fibers.Is cardiac tissue single unit or multiunit muscle?LIST OF KEY TERMSA-bandactin-thin filamentsaerobic exerciseanaerobic exerciseasynchronous recruitmentatrophiescentral fatiguecoactivationconcentric contractioneccentric contractioncreatine phosphatecrossbridgesexcitation-contraction couplingextrapyramidal systemfast-glycolytic fibersfast-oxidative fibersfatigueflaccid paralysisfoot proteinsforcefulcrumfunctional syncytiumglycogenglycolysisH zone high-intensity exerciseI bandinsertionisometric contractionisotonic contraction (concentric & eccentric)leverload armM linemotor unit recruitmentmultineuronal motor systemmultiunit smooth musclemuscle spindlesmuscular dystrophymyoblastsmyofibrilsmyogenic activitymyoglobinmyosin-thick filamentsneurogenicneuromuscular fatigueoptimal lengthorigin oxidative phosphorylation


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