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U of I SHS 320 - Study Guide Exam 2

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Exam 2 Study GuideANYTHING IN THIS COLOR MARKS VOCABULARY WORDS AND PHRASESTHROUGHOUT THE STUDY GUIDELecture 1: The Toddler- Early Word CombinationWORD COMBINATION IS FUNCTIONAL - Helps a child create more complex ideas!Milestones of Word Combination: Average: 20 months → around this age is the vocabulary spurt Typical range: 18-24 monthsSignal for concern: 24 monthsStage 1: - 2 word combinations- Communicate about people, actions, objects, interrelationships- Once a child is able to have about half of their utterances 2 words, theyll begin to add 3-4 word sentencesSemantic Relations: word combinations from stage 1 that are functional and communicate extra meaning- Focused on communicating their immediate environmentKey to Semantic Relationships:1. Functional 2. Simplea. Telegraphic speech: sounds like broken speech like through a telegram by leaving out main grammatical markers: ex “more cookie”i. They can further this signal with eye gaze or gestures to explain what they want or do not wantb. Open class words: dominate children’s language which lead to nouns, verbs, adjectives-they are open because they freely admit new items as language evolves -most frequent are nouns3. Generativea. Children can create new word combinations themselves from their surroundings and understandingsBASIC SENTENCE VOCABULARY LIST: 1. Agent- animate being that performs action towards object2. Action- physical action being done (action verbs)3. Object- Concrete noun on which action can be perfomed4. Entity- noun (inanimate object not involving action)5. Attribute- adjective/ descriptor6. Demonstrative- specifies which one you are speaking about in a list7. Location- place that something is occuring 8. Possessor/ possession: my ____ → claiming that something is yoursCOMMON RELATIONSHIPS: Agent + action - daddy playAction + object - eat cookieAgent+ object - kitty yarnAction + location - throw tableEntity+ location- ball lawnPossessor + possession - my cupEntity+ attribute/ attribute + entity - ball orangeDemonstrative + entity - this carrotRecurrence: play againNegation: no peasDisappearance: all goneLecture 2: Becoming GrammaticalStage 2: - Child starts to use basic sentence structure- The child will begin to use grammatical morphemesBasic sentence structure: SUBJECT- VERB- OBJECT (S-V-O) → “sleep very often”- Agent + action + object- ‘Building blocks of grammar’Morpheme: the smallest unit of language that can carry meaning- Languages use this to add grammatical information to words - mark tensesSEQUENCE OF ACQUISITION OF GRAMMATICAL MORPHEMES: (from stage 2-5)1. Present progressive (singing, playing)a. Adding -ing to the end of a verb changes its tense b. Communicating something that is ongoing or happening right now2. Preposition (in the cup)a. Where something is3. Preposition (on the floor)a. Where something is4. Plural (books, dolls)a. Adding -s tells you how many (if there are more than 1)5. Irregular past tense (broke, went)a. Verbs that do not follow the regular pattern for changing tenseb. Instead of “he goed” → “he went”6. Possessive (mommy’s chair, susie’s teddy)a. Adding ‘s to a noun indicates who has possession7. Copula uncontractible (this is my book)a. When the form of ‘to be’ is the main verb in the sentenceb. uncontractible= the verb is not able to be added to the noun previous to it8. Articles (the teddy)a. A, an, theb. Referring to something more specific or general9. Regular past tense (walked, played)a. Adding -ed to the end of a verb to express that it’s already happened10.Third person present tense regular (he climbs, mommy cooks)a. It follows the typical pattern (adding -s to the verb)11.Third person present tense irregular (john has three cookies)a. Does not follow the typical pattern → you do not add -s to the verb12.Auxiliary uncontractible (she was going to school)a. Auxiliary: a helping verb that is connected to the copula b. Uncontractible: the auxiliary is not able to connect to the noun before the verb13.Copula contractible (im happy, we’re hungry)a. The main verb is a form of to beb. The verb can contract onto the previous word14.Auxiliary contractible (mommy’s going shopping)a. Verb form of to be + another verbb. Able to contract onto the previous word** FIRST A CHILD USES CONTEXT TO EXPRESS → ONCE THIS IS MASTEREDTHEY CAN USE LANGUAGE TO EXPRESS!! **Roger Brown: Created the course of grammatical development (as seen above)- Discovered that as a child’s utterances become longer , their grammatical structures become more complex - Originated the concept of MEAN UTTERANCE LENGTH (MLU)MLU: - The longer the utterances → the more grammatically complex- CALCULATION: total number of morphemes / total number of utterances- Context of language sampling can vary- Usually calculated from spontaneous language samplingCHARACTERISTICS BY MLU: STAGE MLU SYNTACTIC CHARACTERISTICSTYPICAL AGE RANGE1 (I) 1.00-2.00 First word users and early word combiners-starts out with only 2 words → after 50% of vocabis 2 words 3-4 words beginTelegraphic, semantic relationship12-26 monthsVOCABULARY SPURT2 (II) 2.00-2.50 Early sentence usersMorphological development27-30 months3 (III) 2.50-3.00 Sentence form developsQuestions, negations31-34 months4 (IV) 3.00-3.75 Later sentence usersSentence embedding35-40 months5 (V) 3.75-4.00 More complex sentencesClauses joining41-46 months5+ (V+) 4.50 + Mostly complex sentencesGreater syntactic complexity47 + monthsLecture 3: Morphological DevelopmentChild develops syntax → more grammatical morphemes → MLU gets longerBe careful in understanding that MLU does not directly tell you if the child is using the morpheme in the correct way for typical development of their age → more of a numerical indicatorINSTANCES WHERE IT MAY NOT MATCH UP: 1. Child has long length of utterances but is not including key grammatical morphemes theyshould have already developed2. Language sample is not representative:a. Child imitates person speaking a lot → may overestimate MLUb. Child repeats themselves frequently → may overestimate/ underestimate MLUc. Person speaking asks a lot of questions → may underestimate MLUd. Child engages in too many routines during interaction → may overestimate MLUTypical Development: Children all have the same developmental sequence but may have interindividual differences in their rate of development Caregiver Strategies: - Model different words needed in daily activity → so there


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