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Clemson BIOCH 220 - Practice Test 1

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Practice Test 11. In the positive feedback system that occurs during childbirth, the stretching of the uterus causes the following to occur:1. An increase in the release of oxytocin to increase the contractions/stretching of the uterus2. A decrease in the release of oxytocin to increase the contractions/stretching of the uterus3. An increase in the release of oxytocin to decrease the contractions/stretching of the uterus4. A decrease in the release of oxytocin to increase the contractions/stretching of the uterus2. The energy stored in a muscle (A) can be used to contract the muscle (B). What kinds ofenergies are A and B, respectfully?a. Kinetic, chemicalb. Mechanical, potentialc. Potential, kineticd. Potential, chemicale. Electrical, kinetic3. Compare and contrast a molecule and a compound.- Molecule: 2 or more atoms bonded to one another - Compound: 2 or more different elements bonded together 4. Circle the molecule that is in the reduced form. Put a box around the molecule that is in the oxidized state.NADH NAD+5. Explain how humans use the high heat of vaporization to keep the body’s temperature inhomeostasis.____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________6. Circle the following carbohydrate that is not absorbable by the human body. Why is it notabsorbable?Glucose Fructose Lactose Galactose__________________________________________________________________7. What is the difference between the structures of saturated, unsaturated, and polyunsaturated effects? Which, if any, increases the production of cholesterol in the body? Which, if any, decreases the production of cholesterol in the body?- Saturated: have no double bonds, solid at room temp, increases cholesterol- Unsaturated: one double bond, no effect of cholesterol - Polyunsaturated: more than one double bond, reduces cholesterol 8. As left over food and metabolic wastes accumulate in the large intestine, stretch receptors detect a stimulus and send a signal to the brain that the large intestine is getting full and needs to be emptied. The brain sends a signal to the smooth muscle in the large intestine telling it to contract. Contraction of the smooth muscle releases the feces out of the rectum. Which of the following life processes are not involved in the statement above?A. ConductivityB. MovementC. DigestionD. ExcretionE. Excitability9. When blood sugar is too high, receptors in the walls of the blood vessel detect the stimulus. A signal is sent to the brain, and the brain sends a signal to the pancreas tellingthe pancreas to release insulin. Insulin acts on cells to allow glucose to move from the bloodstream into the cells. What kind of feedback system is this, and what are the detectors, control center/integration center, effector organ, and effector molecule, respectively?A. Negative feedback system; glucose, brain, pancreas, insulinB. Negative feedback system; insulin, pancreas, insulin, glucoseC. Positive feedback system; insulin, brain, pancreas, glucoseD. Negative feedback system; receptors, brain, pancreas, insulinE. Positive feedback system; brain, receptors, insulin, glucose10. When Arnold Schwarzenegger lifted weights, he broke down the proteins in his muscles.He would then eat a ton of food and use those nutrients to make bigger muscles. How would you describe the reactions involved in the following situations:Reactions occurring while he is lifting weights, reactions involved in the digestion of his food, and the reactions involved in using that food to make new muscles, respectfully?A. Catabolic, catabolic, anabolicB. Anabolic, anabolic, catabolicC. Anabolic, catabolic, anabolic, D. Catabolic, anabolic, catabolic,E. Anabolic, anabolic, anabolic11. Which of the following molecules do humans store as polysaccharides in the body? Where are these polysaccharides found?A. Glycogen; pancreas and liverB. Starch; brain and pancreasC. Glycogen; brain and liverD. Starch; muscles, and pancreasE. Glycogen; muscles and liver12. Your doctor has told you that your cholesterol is too high. Would it be better to use butteror olive oil when cooking your dinner tonight? Why?____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________13. Testosterone is a molecule that greatly increases in males during puberty. Testosterone has many functions. One of these functions is aiding in the development of muscle mass.Testosterone is produced in the testis and travels to the muscle cells in the bloodstream. At 35, testosterone levels begin to decrease. This is a common time for men to gain the dad bod.Highlight/circle the information above that explains how we know testosterone is a steroid and not an eicosanoid. Explain below how the highlighted information distinguishes this fact. ___________________________________________________________________14. Ribeye steak and salmon could both be seen as animal products/proteins that contain fat. What is different about their fat profile that makes salmon a better option to include ina low-cholesterol diet.____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 15. After a string of amino acids coil into an alpha helix, the polypeptide may fold to create active sites. What level of protein structure is attained by creation of these active sites?A. PrimaryB. SecondaryC. TertiaryD. Quaternary 16. Insulin is used by cells to move glucose into the cell. Through the process of cellular respiration, ATP is created. ATP is known as the energy currency of the body. When someone does a bench press, they use their chest muscles.What kind of proteins are insulin and those that make up the chest muscles, respectfully?A. Fibrous, contractileB. Regulatory, transportC. Fibrous, immunologicalD. Regulatory, contractileE. Regulatory, transport17. Small lipids pass easily through the plasma membrane without an integral protein. Whichof the following transport processes do these small lipids use use?A. Facilitated diffusionB. FiltrationC. EndocytosisD. PhagocytosisE. Simple diffusion18. When a cell is placed in a solution, water leaves the cell. What kind of solution was the cell placed into?A. HypertonicB. IsotonicC. HypotonicD. BarotonicE. Heptonic19. Some cells in the stomach produce acidic secretions. Cells in the stomach are most likely to have


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