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Clemson FDSC 1010 - FDSC 1010 Health and Disease Terms and Definitions

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FDSC 1010 Introduction to Food Science and Human NutritionHealth and Disease Terms and DefinitionsAcute Disease: Fast-developing, short-lasting disease that may be contagious.Chronic Disease: Slow-developing, long-lasting disease that is not contagious. Body Mass Index (BMI): A calculation of a person’s weight in relation to a person’s height BMI = [weight in pounds/(height in inches X height in inches)] x 703Underweight: Demonstrating a BMI <18.5 kg/m2Healthy Weight: Demonstrating a BMI 18.5 to 24.9 kg/m2Overweight: Demonstrating a BMI 25.0 to 29.9 kg/m2Obese: Demonstrating a BMI 30.0+ kg/m2Obesity: A disease characterized by excess body fatness contributing to increasedrisk for chronic diseases including cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, fatty liver disease, obstructive sleep apnea, gallbladder disease,chronic kidney disease, and osteoarthritis, to name a few.Medical Nutrition Therapy: Evidence-based interventions provided by Registered Dietitian (RD) or Registered Dietitian Nutritionist (RDN) for individuals or groups utilizing meal plans, medically prescribed diets and tube feedings, specialized intravenous solutions and specialized oral feedings, and the analysis of potential food and drug interactions. MNT services involve nutrition assessment, nutrition diagnosis, nutrition intervention, and nutrition monitoring and evaluation for the purpose of disease prevention and management.Atherosclerosis: Hardening of the arteries due to a build-up of fatty plaque. Atherosclerosis leads to a narrowing of the arteries which can eventuallyblock complete blood flow to the heart, brain, or other vital organ of thebody.Cancer: Group of diseases in which abnormal cells grow uncontrolled and can spread, or metastasize, through the body invading vital organs and potentially leading to death.Cardiovascular Disease: A disease involving the blood vessels, the heart, or both. Cardiovascular disease is an umbrella term that includes any chronic disease of theheart, including cerebrovascular disease, coronary heart disease, coronary artery disease, congenital birth defects of the heart, and heart valve disease, to name a few.Cerebrovascular Disease: A disease resulting from a disruption, or blockage, of the circulation of blood through the arteries, particularly those of the brain, due to a build-up of fatty plaque within the arteries. Complete blockage leads to a stroke, also known as a cerebrovascular accident (CVA).Coronary Heart Disease: A disease resulting from a disruption, or blockage, of the circulation of blood throughout the arteries, particularly those of the heart, due to the build-up of fatty plaque within the arteries. Complete blockage leadsto a heart attack.Diabetes Mellitus: A disease characterized by abnormally high levels of blood glucose that result from impaired insulin secretion by the beta cells of the pancreas, impaired insulin action at the cellular level (impaired glucose uptake by cells, also known as insulin resistance), or both impaired insulin secretion and impaired insulin action.Pre-Diabetes Mellitus: A condition in which blood glucose levels are higher than normal but not high enough for the diagnosis of diabetes.Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus: A disease characterized by high blood glucose levels resulting from destruction of the insulin-producing cells of the pancreas, also known asthe beta-cells of the pancreas. Destruction of these cells is caused by an autoimmune reaction, environmental toxins, or viral disease. Type 1 diabetes mellitus is neither preventable or curable, but it is treatable through the use of synthetic insulin and changes in diet and exercise.Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A disease characterized by high blood glucose levels due to the body’s inability to produce enough insulin, to use insulin effectively (i.e., insulinresistance), or a combination of both. One of the leading risk factors for the development of T2DM is being overweight or obese. Therefore, T2DM is preventable and potentially "curable" if identified and treated early enough through changes in diet and exercise resulting in weight loss and long-term weight management.Gestational Diabetes: Diabetes that develops during the 3rd trimester of pregnancy as result of impaired insulin activity due to normal hormonal changes associated with pregnancy. Some risk factors for the development of GDM include pregnancy at >25 years of age, overweight/obesity, family history of T2DM or GDM. Like T2DM, the primary risk factor for development is being overweight or obese at the time of pregnancy.Hypertension: High blood pressure, or the force that blood exerts against the walls of the arteries. Normal blood pressure is defined as 120/80 mmHg. Hypertension is defined as 140/90 mmHg.Morbidity: State of demonstrating disease.Mortality: State of death.Osteoporosis: A condition in which the bones become fragile and susceptible to fracture or breakage resulting from the loss of bone mineral content, predominantly calcium.Primary Prevention: Preventing the onset of disease by controlling risk factors for the disease(i.e., nutrition education).Secondary Prevention: Detecting disease early through screening or other forms of health risk appraisal (i.e., blood pressure screening at a health fair).Tertiary Prevention: Treating and rehabilitating an individual after the onset or incidence of disease, illness, or injury (i.e., supporting self-management of diabetes through changes in diet, exercise, and


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