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Carol KinneyNUTR 2030Section 2FAT SOLUBLE VITAMINS:Functions Characteristics Food Toxicity Deficiencies RDAVitaminAVision, protein synthesis, epithelial tissue,reproduction, bone health, healthy immunesystem Includes retinol, retinal,retinoic acid Carrots, butternut squash, cantaloupeToo much: -hypervitaminosis A can lead to liver damage Carotenoids in foods are not toxic Can cause night blindnessand can lead to xerophthalmia,& keratinizationMales-900 microgramsFemales- 700VitaminDBone growth, may prevent some cancers, regulate blood pressure Sunshine VitaminFish, dairy, orange juice HypervitaminosisD, Hypercalcemia,rickets, osteomalacia Adults: 15-20 microgramsChildren:15 microgramsper day VitaminEProtects cell membranes, acts an anticoagulant Alpha-tocopherol,stored inadipose tissueNuts, peanuts, greens Can increase risk of a hemorrhage Rare, nerve problems, muscle weakness 15 mg of alpha-tocopherol VitaminKThromboplastin,thrombin, promotes bloodclotting Phylloquinone,menaquinone,menadione, absorbed in the jejunum Greens, veggies No known adverse effects Affect blood clotting is extremely rate and can cause hip fracture Men- 120 microgramsWomen- 90WATER SOLUBLE VITAMINS Function Characteristics Food Toxicity Deficiencies RDAVitamin C Collagensynthesis,antioxidant, enhancesironabsorption,boostsimmunesystem Known as ascorbic acid, humans lack to make vitamin C Oranges, fruitsCause nausea, cramps, and diarrhea Scurvy, Males- 90Females- 75Thiamin Produces ATP, transmission of nerve impulses Referred to as B1, destroyed inbasic solutionsEnriched foods, whole grains, lean pork None knownBeriberi, Wernicke-korsakoffMales- 1.2 mgFemales- 1.1 mg Niacin Coenzyme in oxidation-reduction, keeps skin cells healthy, digestive system B3, bioavailability Meats, stable in foods, cerealsNone Pellagra Males- 16mgFemales- 14 mg Folate Transfers single-carbon compoundsto form new, homocysteine metabolismBioavailability, synthetic form added to foods Dark green leafy veggies, pastaNo risk Megaloblasts, macrocytic anemiaMales and females: 400 ugRiboflavin Energy in energy metabolism, enhances function of B2, stable during cooking but in the presence of ultraviolet lightMilk, yogurtNone Ariboflavionosis Males- 1.3 mgFemales- 1.1 mgb vitamins Choline Part of phospholipid that makes up the cell wallNot classified asa vitamin but grouped with B vitaminsMilk, liver, eggs, peanuts Excess from supplements can cause sweating, vomiting, hypotension none Males- 550 mgFemales- 425B12 Activates folate, synthesis ofnew cells, maintains myelin sheath nerve tissue Also called cobalamin Fish, eggs, meat, milkNone Macrocytic anemia Pernicious anemia 2.4 microgramsB6 Coenzyme for more than 100 enzymes and amino acid and carbs metabolismPyridoxine, pyridoxal, pyridoxamineCereals, meat,fish, fruits, veggies, and nuts Microcytic hypochromic anemia Sore tongue, depression, inflammationof the skinMales- 1.3-1.7 mgFemales- 1.3-1.5 mgPantothenic acidPart of coenzyme A used in fat, carbs, and proteinmetabolismB5, pantothen means everywhere…found in lots of foods Cereal, nuts, pb, milk, eggsNone Rare, fatigue,nausea, votimiting 5

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