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MSU IAH 206 - WORLD HUNGER AND FOOD SECURITY

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Slide 1Slide 2Slide 3QWa#4FOOD INSECURITY IN THE US? You might say…Transition/themesSlide 8Slide 9Mariana chiltonChilton and Rose: THE PROBLEM OF FOOD INSECURITY IN THE USTHE PROBLEM IS LARGE (AND INVOLVES UNJUST INEQUALITIES)The problem is serious; IMPORTANCE/SIGNIFICANCE/BAD EFFECTsAND WE’RE NOT GETTING IT UNDER CONTROLChilton and Rose’s ProposalSlide 16To clarify: What is it to make it a matter of a (human) right?The human rights frameworkSlide 19What’s controversial ABOUT IT?Clarification of their proposal: Human rights frameworkA “public health” insight: “THE SOCIAL DETERMINANTS OF HEALTH”Public participationSlide 24Lessons from what was successful in the public health contextGovernment accountabilitystronger connections between policies and health outcomesVulnerability (and discrimination)Slide 29Slide 30won’t a CHARITY approach be enough?Slide 33Slide 34NEXT TIME:Slide 36De WaalT U ESDAY , N OV 6 , 2 018T HE HOM E F R ON T / H U M A N R I G H T SWORLD HUNGER AND FOOD SECURITY•TODAY:•Chilton and Rose: •J of Pub Health article on food insecurity in the US (2009)•NEXT TIME: •back to famine and DeWaal (Ch. 2: Famines and Atrocities (14-35)), •but also continue Chilton and Rose •DISC on Fri: WA#4QWA#4•A Human Rights Approach to Food Insecurity in the United States•Explore by focusing on how HR approach:•draws our attention to the “social determinants” of food insecurity•encourages us to gather further facts about and do research about a certain topicFOOD INSECURITY IN THE US?YOU MIGHT SAY…•(1) but this doesn’t happen in the US, does it? (here, the food problem would be obesity, no?)•(2) so HERE’S where Singer is wrong – we have to help our own first, right?TRANSITION/THEMES•We’ve looked at world famine/hunger/undernutrition•There is hunger (FI: people not being able to get enough nutrition) in the US as well as in the developing world•Patel, Stuffed and Starved: •There is obesity as well and hunger•Both are malnutrition•increasing obesity in developing nations•Patel: there is the same underlying cause of all these things  WFS•Chilton and Rose: Re hunger/ FI in developed nations (U.S.): we ought to conceptualize the problem in terms of “human rights”TRANSITION (NOT CHILTON/ROSE):OTHER PROBLEMS WITH FOOD (JUSTICE) IN THE US[NARROWING OF ACCESS TO FOOD (FOR LOWER SES, FOR ALL)]•(1) How easy or difficult it is to get good food (how one’s access to and choice of food is narrowed):•What’s “available” – e.g., food desert problem•What’s made convenient: fast food•Cost (including “price spikes”)•Information and education, advertising•(2) Quality of food •[packaged, processed – as opposed to fresh]Chilton and Rose, “A Rights-Based Approach to Food Insecurity in the United States”•AUTHORS: American J of PH, by people with appointments in schools of PH•http://www.pubfacts.com/author/Mariana+Chilton•http://www.pubfacts.com/author/Donald+Rose•TOPIC: The US•AUDIENCE: addressed to US policy makers, govt agencies; scientific community of PH…•GENRE (AJPH article)MARIANA CHILTON•Professor, Drexel University – School of Public Health•AB, History and Literature: Latin America, Harvard University•MA, Folklore & Ethnography, University of Pennsylvania•MPH, Epidemiology, University of Oklahoma•PhD, Folklore & Folklife, University of Pennsylvania•http://www.centerforhungerfreecommunities.org/about-us/staf•http://www.centerforhungerfreecommunities.org/media/news/mariana-chilton-appointed-national-commission-hungerCHILTON AND ROSE:THE PROBLEM OF FOOD INSECURITY IN THE US•THE PROBLEM IS LARGE •(AND INVOLVES UNJUST INEQUALITIES)•IMPORTANCE/SIGNIFICANCE/BAD EFFECTS•AND WE’RE NOT GETTING IT UNDER CONTROLTHE PROBLEM IS LARGE (AND INVOLVES UNJUST INEQUALITIES)•Food insecurity afects 11.1% of US households•with 3 x this for one particular vulnerable group: single women head of household •Household Food Security in the Us in 2014[USDA, Sept 2015]•An estimated 14.0 percent of American households were “food insecure” at least some time during 2014, including 5.6 percent with “very low food security”, meaning that the food intake of one or more household members was reduced and their eating patterns were disrupted at times during the year because the household lacked money and other resources for food.THE PROBLEM IS SERIOUS;IMPORTANCE/SIGNIFICANCE/BAD EFFECTS•Food insecurity afects:•Health status•Mental health•Associated with depression, anxiety, suicidal ideation•Even mild FI “is associated with” risk of poor cognitive, social, and emotional development (<3yrs)•Further:•Impact on productivity/economyAND WE’RE NOT GETTING IT UNDER CONTROL•>$50 billion/yr on federal nutrition assistance programs •Outcome is almost same rate as 1995, when annual measurement began•[1995, 2009, 2014]CHILTON AND ROSE’S PROPOSAL•Given these problems, “we” should reconceptualize things: adopt a human rights framework•(as opposed to “policy goals”, “charity”)•Take seriously that there is a right to food•Positive impacts – efective, gives us useful direction•“By promoting the right to food, the US can make better progress in resolving domestic food insecurity”•A fresh approach with a concrete methodology•This would be a shift, requiring a concerted efort (part of why it’s a good idea)•But it really shouldn’t be seen as all that foreign; •it fits very well what we’ve already been doing and that we clearly agree on (e.g., (measurement of) FI)•So it’s not infeasible; need to address misconceptions•Still, CHALLENGES: •there are a number of barriers to it being adopted, •but these are based on misconceptionsTO CLARIFY: WHAT IS IT TO MAKE IT A MATTER OF A (HUMAN) RIGHT?•RIGHTS• are trumps, or constraints on the pursuit of good consequences•If you have a right, this means that someone (here the govt) has an obligation to make sure it’s available to you•HUMAN RIGHTS•A right of (and hence moral obligation to) all humans, regardless of whether their government has recognized it (i.e., make it a legal right)THE HUMAN RIGHTS FRAMEWORK•In line with Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UN)•Analogous to (a natural extension of) “the health and human rights movement”•As in HIV/AIDS work and advocacy•Connects with our statements/actions re FI (USDA, CDC) •And would be


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