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Adolescent Development

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Adolescent DevelopmentTheories of AdolescenceAdolescenceFACTORSSTAGESPhysiological Development in Stage IEndocrine glands (ductless)Skeletal growthReproductive System - MalesReproductive System - FemalesNeurological DevelopmentPsychological Development in Stage ICognitive DevelopmentMoral DevelopmentEmotional DevelopmentSocial Development in Stage IPhysiological Development in Stage IICognitive development in stage IIMoral Development in Stage IIEmotional development in Stage IISocial Development in Stage IIPhysiological Development in Stage IIIPsychological Development in Stage IIISocial Development in Stage IIIADULTHOODAdolescent DevelopmentUnderstanding AdolescentsTheories of Adolescence•Growth and Development (internal)•Change of Status (external)•Turmoil and Conflict (process)AdolescenceA life phase or developmental stage brought about and maintained by internal, external, and interactional forces, spanning roughly the ages of 10 – 22 years, containing components of physical, psychological and social change in interaction with developmental contextFACTORS1. Developmental Themes2. Stages3. ContextsSTAGES•Early (10-13)•Middle (14-17)•Late (18-22)Physiological Development in Stage I•Growth occurs through stimulation of the endocrine system•Endocrine system development•Skeletal growth•Reproductive system developmentEndocrine glands (ductless)•Pituitary–Growth hormone (somatotrophin)–MMH (TSH, adrenocorticotrophic)•Thyroid•Parathyroids•Adrenals–Medulla–cortex•Islets of Langerhas•Pineal•Thymus•Gonads (gametes)–Testes•Androgens•testosterone–Ovaries•Estrogen•progestinSkeletal growth•Growth spurt–Leg lengths–Body breadth–Trunk•Increased athletic ability•Increased heart size•Increased muscle strength•Increased lung capacity–Red blood cells•Change in body physique•AcneReproductive System - Males•Accelerated growth of testes and scrotum•Growth of pubic hair•Height and penis growth (I yr. Later)•Appearance of axillary hair–Underarms–Face•Enlargement of larynx and voice changeReproductive System - Females•Beginning of breast growth–4 stages•Appearance of pubic hair–Light–Pigmented–curled•Height spurt•Appearance of axillary hair•Menarche–12-18 months of infertility•Individual differencesNeurological Development•Dramatic changes in the brain at puberty–Brain thickening in frontal lobes (Giedd)–Synaptic exuberance–Cortex growth spurt•Complex executive functions develop through adolescence through early adulthood (Casey)•High susceptibility to environmental and drug influencesPsychological Development in Stage I•Cognitive development•Moral development•Emotional development•SocializationCognitive Development•Transition from concrete to formal operations•Balance between accommodation and assimilation•Emergence of convergent and divergent thinking•Transition from retributive to distributive justiceMoral Development•Level I – Pre-conventional–Type 1 – obedience and punishment–Type 2 – Instrumental relativism•Level II – Conventional role conformity–Type 3 – Interpersonal concordance orientation–Type 4 --Authority, Law and DutyEmotional Development•Learning empathy•Developing a need for intimacy•Pre-established need for securitySocial Development in Stage I•Need for intimacy extended to same sex chum•Emergence of “gang” mentality•Development of Leadership/followership patternsPhysiological Development in Stage II•Leveling of growth spurts•Full development of sexual and erotic potential•Full sex drive development in malesCognitive development in stage II•Passing of adolescent egocentrism•Increased instrumental use of formal operations•Development of first stages of identityMoral Development in Stage II•Level III – Morality of Self-Accepted Moral Principles–Type 5 – morality of social contract and democratically accepted law–Type 6 – morality of individual principles of conscience (universal ethical principle orientation)Emotional development in Stage II•Development and need to integrate–Need for security–Need for intimacy–Need for sexual arousalSocial Development in Stage II•Operationalization of needs for intimacy and security•Normative social influences•Informational social influences•Conformity vs. behavior contagionPhysiological Development in Stage III•Completion of growth by males•Beginning of aging processPsychological Development in Stage III•Cognitive maturity–Use if intellect against the self•Moral Development–Completed – practice begins•Emotional Development–Integration of security, intimacy, and lust needs•Development of Achieved Identity–Emergence of autonomySocial Development in Stage III•Life style choice•Career choice•Social instrumentality•Perceptions of others•Accepting rights and responsibilitiesADULTHOOD


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