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CSU PSY 100 - Behaviorism

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Exam 2 Study GuideLearning- What are key beliefs of the behaviorism perspective?- Who was Pavlov? What did he discover?- Who was Watson? Describe his work with Little Albert.- Who was Skinner? What did he study and how?- Think of an example of classical conditioning in your life and label all of the stimuli/responses before and after learning.- Identify the neutral/conditioned/unconditioned stimuli and the conditioned/unconditionedresponse:Sal got a toy Pokeball and always carried it around his home. His sister Lucy thought nothing of it until one day Sal started throwing the Pokeball at her, hitting her in the face! After him throwing the Pokeball and hitting her several times, Lucy started flinching every time she saw Sal holding the Pokeball.- Come up with an example for positive/negative reinforcement/punishment.- Is the following positive or negative, reinforcement or punishment?o When Susie completes her work at school, her teacher says, “Great job!” and gives her a high-five.o Mario stops to smell the roses, but is stung on the nose by a wasp. He rarely smells the roses anymore.o Your insurance company offers reduced rates for safe drivers, so you drive carefully more often.o After Lin hit Robert with her toy bat, her mother took away the bat. Lin learned to not hit with her toys.- Which of the following are a primary reinforcer? A conditioned or secondary reinforcer?o A $20 billo A hugo A free mealo A Superbowl ring- What is extinction burst?- If you wanted to train your dog to roll over, what are some ways you could shape his behavior? What are successive approximations for rolling over?- How is extinction the same and different in classical vs. operant conditioning?- What are the four schedules of reinforcement? What do they look like and why do they occur in those specific patterns?- How can you strengthen a classically conditioned response? What would it mean if the response generalized? What would it mean if the response had good discrimination?- Apply it! Outside of animals & laboratories, how are these relevant to our world today? How are they used? Where do you see it occurring? Will this knowledge impact your parenting choices? How is it relevant for helping people with phobias?- What are some limits to classical conditioning? - What aspects of cognition impact conditioning? (hint: think of latent learning, motivation…)- How does observational learning occur? What is the most famous/classic study of observational learning?Memory & Forgetting- What are the three processes of memory?- We discussed several encoding strategies in class (e.g., multiple methods/styles, connecting to previous info, elaborative rehearsal, mnemonics, emotion, personal meaning, spacing, interleaving). How could you use each while studying for this exam?- Where do we store memories in the brain? o What’s the main structure for long-term memory storage?o Where is classical conditioning stored?o What structure “flags” emotional memories to better remember them?- What is consolidation and when does it occur?- Which of your class’ exams use recall? Recognition? Do any use cued recall?- If you wanted to increase the effectiveness of context-dependent memory, what would youdo? If you wanted it to not work well, what would you do?- If you’re feeling stressed with exams and midterms this week and experiencing mood-dependent memory, what memories are you most likely to be thinking of? What could you do to help yourself access happier or more relaxing memories?- Why is it important to have a unique cue for a memory?- If you have an upcoming oral exam, how could you best study so that your encoding and testing processes match?- What is the stage model of memory? Describe each of the three memory categories, how long they hold information, and their role or purpose. - What type of long-term memories are the following?(Long-term memory options: semantic, flashbulb, episodic, procedural)o Al remembers working with his uncle at a cranberry farm and jumping over the water-filled ditches. o Al also remembers how to harvest cranberries, how to store them, and how to process them. o Al vividly remembers the moment his uncle was holding a stick of dynamite and it blew up, resulting in his uncle’s loss of hand and eye.o Al remembers the stores in town that buy the cranberries, how much they pay, andthe years they have purchased from him.- Describe the differences between effortful and automatic processing, and the different types of memories resulting from each.- What is long-term potentiation?- What is the serial position effect?- If you had to create your own memory model (think about Inside Out and how they described the processes, types of memory, and how things are forgotten), what would your model look like?o How is memory like a filing cabinet? Not like one?o How is memory/forgetting like a computer? Not like one?- What is the Ebbinghaus Forgetting Curve? How do we slow the rate of forgetting?- Describe the differences between Decay Theory and Interference Theory. What are assumptions of each? How well is the research support for each? How would you study them?- Explain the difference between accessible and available. - Which of the following is proactive interference? Retroactive interference?o You park your car at the airport, but when you go back to find it, you spend a long time searching the 3rd level. You then realize you actually parked on the 1st level. It was last month that you parked on the 3rd.o You’re flying home via Frontier for Thanksgiving, but you complain to your aunt about how you had to pay for a carry-on bag. She says, “You didn’t have to pay for carry-on last year, maybe you should use that airline again.” The problem is, you cannot remember what that airline was!- Each time we remember something, or reconsolidate it, what happens to it?- When is a time you experienced source confusion?- What is the misinformation effect? When do we need to be especially aware of it? How can we avoid causing it?- How can we create a false memory?- How can we erase memories?- How reliable is eyewitness testimony? What factors increase/decrease its accuracy?THINKING - What are different methods of problem solving?o If you needed to choose a new car to buy and decided to use each method of problem solving, what would each one look like? (e..g, If you used an algorithm to decide on a car, maybe you looked up 30 important facts


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