UCF PCB 3233 - Immunology Exam 2 Chapters 3, 4 Study Guide (2) (2 pages)

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Immunology Exam 2 Chapters 3, 4 Study Guide (2)



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Immunology Exam 2 Chapters 3, 4 Study Guide (2)

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University of Central Florida
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Pcb 3233 - Immunology
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PCB 3233 Exam 2 Study Guide Chpt 3 and 4 Chapter 3 1 When the following receptors are engaged what mechanism is initiated in a phagocyte Mannose receptor CR3 and CR4 or Scavenger receptor 2 When the following receptors are engaged what mechanism is initiated in a macrophage TLR s 3 What do TLR 3 4 5 and 7 bind to 4 Know the TLR4 signaling mechanism All of the extracellular including LBP and intracellular MyD88 TIR domain and IKK NFkB signaling 5 In the previous question what 5 genes that you learned about are transcribed because of the TLR 4 recognition 6 What is the general term given to these 5 gene products Hint 2 part name including what they result in along with what type of molecule they are 7 Know what neutrophils do and what lineage they come from during hematopoiesis 8 What is another name for neutrophils 9 Know the 4 classes of adhesion molecules and which adhesion molecule they bind to Ex LFA 1 binds to ICAM 1 and vascular addressin CD 34 binds to L selectin 10 Know the 4 steps of extravasation 11 How can you tell the difference between a general cytokine vs a chemokine 12 Neutrophil granules and the names of them 13 Respiratory burst associated with neutrophils 14 What are the 2 acute phase proteins you learned about and what can they do I am excluding serum amyloid A from this Hint We talked about each being able to do two things 15 Know all 3 complement pathways What has to be present for them to start the initiating enzyme and all the following components cut in order 16 Name of the complement convertases and their components 17 Type I interferons vs Type II interferons 18 What cells can produce Type I interferons 19 What is the main innate immune cell activated by Type I interferons 20 Know the 2 effector functions of NK cells Hint one is cytotoxic 21 What type of infection do NK cells typically fight against 22 What type of response is created in a cell that an NK cell has targeted virally infected 23 What cytokine does an NK cell secrete to activate macrophages 24 What happens to virally infected dendritic cells when NK cells outnumber them What happens to virally infected dendritic cells when they outnumber NK cells Chapter 4 1 What does the germline configuration of the Ig variable region genes look like in all cells except mature B cells What does the germline configuration of the TCR variable region genes look like in all cells except mature T cells 2 What gene segments need to come together to make a functional gene for the variable region in B cells for heavy and light chains 3 What are the different isotypes of heavy chains and light chains 4 Which chain heavy or light confers the antibody s isotype heavy or light 5 Know the major points for the different antibodies 6 What do the constant domains do for the Ig s Do they bind to the antigen confer effector function or have no function at all 7 What does CDR stand for and why are these important What does HV stand for Where specifically are these in the BCR Ab 8 Which gene segments provide diversity to CDR1 and 2 Where does the diversity for CDR 3 come from which gene segment 9 Know the major characteristics of the different antibodies Ab s Ex bivalent highest concentration Ab in blood allows for phagocytosis can cross the placenta small good in extravascular areas 10 What are the ways we can get diversity in the antigen binding sites combinatorial multiple V J and D segments can be used and N and P nucleotide additions junctional diversity 11 Somatic recombination in greater detail Rag genes and gene products a RAG1 and RAG2 which two cell types are these active in and what do they do b RSS what are these and what two cell types would these be useful c 12 23 or 1turn 2turn rule d TdT e P and N nucleotide additions 12 What is somatic hypermutation Where does it take place Which cells does it affect When does it happen before or after activation Is there a specific area that is mutated more than other areas 13 Switch regions Where are they located What do they switch How does it switch Which cells does this happen in and when does it happen What benefit does it provide What can be the Ab isotype be switched to and which isotypes can t be switched to 14 Affinity maturation What does this result in 15 Look at figure 4 37 the changes in the immunoglobulin genes that occur over a B cell s lifetime Understand that chart Know which changes are permanent changes to DNA vs those that are not permanent alternative splicing of RNA You will most likely have to go back into the text to get a good understanding of what is going on in this chart 16 An Ab is made up of 4 chains 2 heavy and 2 light what holds them together 17 In a given Ab are the 2 heavy chains exactly the same and are the 2 light chains exactly the same 18 What is allelic exclusion and how does it affect your adaptive immune cell receptors 19 From IgG to IgG where do you expect to find the greatest amino acid differences Constant regions or variable regions and if the answer is the variable regions which specific regions of the variable regions 20 Do light chains have isotypes If so how many different isotypes are there and what are they Can one Ab have multiple light chain isotypes 21 What happens during somatic recombination and what happens during somatic hypermutation Where and when do each happen 22 What enzyme is involved in both somatic hypermutation and isotype switching 23 Look at the different epitopes ex linear vs discontinous 24 What does a B cell do to change a membrane BCR into a secreted antibody 25 IgD and IgM membrane immunoglubulins Are the antigen binding sites the same What is different between the two immunoglobulins How are they both on the surface at the same time If they cut the DNA to change isotype could they both be expressed at the same time 26 Look at fig 4 21 and 4 28 Have an idea of the linearity of constant region genes and know which constant region genes have switch regions in front of them and which constant region genes don t have a switch region Why doesn t C delta need a switch region in front of it If you switched from IgM to IgG1 could you ever go back to IgG3 or IgD 27 How many subclasses of IgG and IgA are there Fig 4 33


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