SJSU EE 140 - ch23_Electric_Potential (18 pages)

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ch23_Electric_Potential



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ch23_Electric_Potential

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Pages:
18
School:
San Jose State University
Course:
Ee 140 - Principles of Electromagnetic Fields

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Chapter 23 Electric Potential Dr Ray Kwok SJSU Electric Potential Dr Ray Kwok Goals for Chapter 23 To study and calculate electrical potential energy To define and study examples of electric potential To trace regions of equal potential as equipotential surfaces To find the electric field from electrical potential Electric Potential Dr Ray Kwok Electrical Potential Energy m1m 2 FG G 2 r q1q 2 Fe k 2 r Gravitational force Coulomb force similar to gravitational electrostatic force is a conservative r r force Wnet F d l 0 which means there is a potential energy associated with this force such that F dU dx or gradient in 3D Electric Potential Dr Ray Kwok Work and Potential Energy There is a uniform field between the two plates As the charge moves from A to B work is done on it W Fd q Ex xf xi PE W q Ex x Only for a uniform field Electric Potential Dr Ray Kwok Potential Difference voltage Potential difference is not the same as potential energy The potential energy and the potential difference are related by PE q V Both electric potential energy and potential difference are scalar quantities Units of potential difference V J C A special case occurs when there is a uniform electric field V VB VA Ex x Gives more information about units N C V m Electric Potential Dr Ray Kwok Equipotential Contour 2D On a contour map the curves mark constant elevation the steepest slope is perpendicular to the curves The closer together the curves the steeper the slope Electric Potential Dr Ray Kwok Equipotential Surfaces 3D An equipotential surface is a surface on which all points are at the same potential No work is required to move a charge at a constant speed on an equipotential surface The electric field at every point on an equipotential surface is perpendicular to the surface Electric Potential Dr Ray Kwok Equipotentials and Electric Fields Lines Positive Charge The equipotentials for a point charge are a family of spheres centered on the point charge The field lines are perpendicular



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