Mizzou BIO SC 1001 - Exam 3 Study Guide (6 pages)

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Exam 3 Study Guide



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Exam 3 Study Guide

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6
School:
University of Missouri - Columbia
Course:
Bio Sc 1001 - Topics in Biological Science - General
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Exam 3 Study Guide Protein Synthesis A K A Gene Expression Transcription Translation 1 Cells are made to look and function differently because genes are not always making proteins The genes can be turned on by inducers or turned off by suppressors hence this is why every cell does a different function In other words some genes in that cell are regulated to turn on or off Additionally the proteins that are made in each different cell determine the cell s phenotype 2 RNA is single stranded not double stranded RNA has a ribose sugar instead of a Deoxyribose sugar RNA has the base uracil instead of thymine 3 Transcription is a gene sequence is used as a template to make mRNA This happens in the nucleus 4 Translation is when the mRNA strand is used to make proteins This happens in the ribosome 5 Inducers are responsible for turning on genes Repressors are responsible for turning off genes 6 Inducers bind to and remove the repressors while repressors bind to the promoter of the gene on DNA to prevent transcription 7 The proteins are made in the ribosome so they must have been translated at the ribosome to carry out later functions to transcribe and translate other genes 8 SKIP 9 SKIP 10 1 makes one cell different from another 2 some genes are only supposed to turn on to make specific proteins during certain stages in life 3 Gene regulation helps cells adapt to their environment 11 Yes if the base that has been changed changes the codon for which determines what amino acid binds to the sequence This change in sequence can potentially change what protein is made by coding for a different amino acid 12 Alcohol dehydrogenase and Aldehyde dehydrogenase Alcohol dehydrogenase converts alcohol into acetaldehyde and aldehyde dehydrogenase converts acetaldehyde into acetate Acetaldehyde is most harmful because it is a toxin That is why there is a second enzyme to break it down into acetate 13 The two fault alleles are ADH1C and ALDH2 ADH1C is the faulty allele of Alcohol Dehydrogenase ADH and causes those with this version of the gene to metabolize alcohol faster ALDH2 is the faulty allele of Aldehyde Dehydrogenase and causes a deficiency in the Aldehyde Dehydrogenase The individuals who have the faulty alleles will present phenotypes such as facial flushing sweating and possibly vomiting 14 The genes for the two alcohol metabolism enzymes will not be presented in most on in all parts of the body They will only be on when the body senses that there is alcohol present This is because gene regulation will help the body adapt GMOs Exam 3 Study Guide A GMO organisms that have had their DNA sequence changed through genetic editing or transgenics Transgenics adding DNA from another species Artificial Selection the selective breeding of plants or animals B Two types of genetic modification are the use of Recombinant DNA technology and the use of CRISPR cas 9 Recombinant DNA technology is when a gene is cut out and used to make a protein the gene is inserted into the plasmid of bacteria and the bacteria then replicate CRISPR cas 9 is a genome editing tool that can find a DNA sequence and cuts out the old one and replaces it with a new sequence C Artificial selection allows dramatic change in a species time for testing and maintains genetic diversity within the population however it is slow to change the traits in a species and requires mutation which does not always provide enough abundance to sustain our ever growing population D The advantages of genetic engineering transgenics is that it allows quick and changes of traits in the species For example this allows us to be able to feed our growing population since we can make certain plants resistant to pesticides insects A disadvantage is that we will lose genetic diversity which will make one species able to contract a virus or some antigen that will wipe out the whole species Additionally plants that are resistant to herbicides like roundup will result in weeds that get this trait due to the sharing of genes hence we will have to use more herbicides E The three ways GMOs are made are by recombinant DNA technology the use of CRISPR cas 9 and using viruses to infect cells with genes F When an organism is genetically modified it will have a new GENE which will transcribe and translate to make a new PROTEIN and that will give the organism a new TRAIT G Restriction enzymes are used to cut out a gene used to make a protein They cut the plasmid in the bacteria and this allows the fusion of the wanted gene into the plasmid This insertion is what is known as recombinant DNA H Recombinant DNA technology is used to make a lot of a specific type of protein First a gene is cut out of an organism with the wanted gene by the use of a restriction enzyme After this a restriction enzyme is used to cut the plasmid in which the specific gene will be inserted into The fusion of the wanted specific gene into the plasmid is what is known as Recombinant DNA The bacteria is then transformed and will begin to make the new protein which we can then extract This protein made in abundance is how we can make GMOs I We have genetically modified bacteria so that they will produce the specific protein we want for a plant Additionally we have used bacteria with an oil eating enzyme to clean up oil spills The insertion of genes into bacteria is also used for medical purposes making hormones vaccines etc We use GMOs in plants to produce stronger crops that are resistant to cold heat drought floods herbicides and toxins Additionally GM Exam 3 Study Guide J K L M N plants will yield better foods which can be healthier and fresher We have used GM animals to produce medicine and to detect pollutants in the water Adding or removing genes helps us learn where certain genes are expressed what proteins made from a gene does and other molecules the proteins interact with Health concerns allergies cancer not enough time to see negative effects in the population environmental concerns Bt crops kill non target species outcrossing with native non GM species increase use of chemicals and loss of genetic diversity Economic concerns patent rights big farma and GM countries out competing non GM countries SKIP A reliable source of information on GMOs would be one in which evidence is from a meta study was peer reviewed and presents statistical significance there is a relationship SKIP Cell Division and Cancer A All our cells have the same DNA because each of our cells goes through the cell cycle and


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