UB PSY 351 - Biopsych exam 1 (16 pages)

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Biopsych exam 1



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Biopsych exam 1

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Pages:
16
School:
University at Buffalo, The State University of New York
Course:
Psy 351 - Biopsychology
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Biopsych Professor Ruixang Roy Sensory and motor integration Anatomy cells structures Physiology electrical signals Chemistry neurotransmitters Sensory Motor Sex Food Sleep Emotions Stress Cognition When things go south Triune Brain Theory It s wrong tho lol lower level animals can show emotion and can reason 3 layers of brain Reptilian Mammalian Human Rep Brain stem cerebellum fight or flight autopilot they don t have emotions Mammals Limbic System emotions memories habits decisions Human Neocortex Language abstract thought imagination consciousness reasons rationalizes Quizzes are on UB learns 15 questions need 13 correct to get 100 3 attempts on quiz 3 quizzes will be dropped 3 Class Participations Points Decide on project topic by September 17th Alzheimers Chapter 1 2 Animals in Research Ethics in using animals 74 mice are used in research Dogs and cats account for under 0 5 research Monkeys account for less than 0 1 Animal rights vs Animal welfare 3 R s of Animal Research Replacement Reduction Refinement Within subject s design use same animal to do 2 steps give them placebo then give the real medicine later can act as both control and experimental Cannot be used of drug has huge carry over effect Between subject s design control experimental Hans Selye stressed out all his rats lol Animal surgery types of drugs Analgesic pain killer first step and last step to relax them Anesthetic knock out second step Antibiotic treat bacterial infections last step Animal Housing Standard comfortable Impoverished uncomfortable restricts them from eating their poop but they can be bored Enriched Environment uncomfortable restricts them from eating their own poop but they have fun things to do in the cage Chapter 1 3 History and Perspective Heart was thought to be the most important organ ancient Egyptians threw away brain and kept heart Aristotle thought the Heart controlled the mind It wasn t until the renaissance that the brain was known to control mind Dualism Mind separate from body WRONG Monism Mind and body isn t separate it s one thing materialism and mentalism Prefrontal lobotomy destroys the prefrontal cortex thought it can fix psychological disorders Mind control brain stimulation with electrodes inhibiting aggression in bulls Optogenetics control brain using lights instead of electricity Tinbergen s 4 questions Ethology science of animal behavior How Dynamic ontogeny development Static Mechanism Why Dynamic Phylogeny evolution Static Adaptation Leptin is an inhibitory control over food intake obese if leptin deficient Low leptin levels tell body to eat Leptin secreted from fat tissues obese person w o leptin deficiency has a lot of leptin Thin person has low leptin levels Leptin s inhibitory function is ineffective so they have the urge to eat Epigenetics histone modification and DNA methylation can lead to changes in gene expression without altering the Chapter 2 1 Neurons and Glia Reticular Theory vs Cell Theory Issue is settled Electron microscope shows the individual cells Information is transmitted from cell to cell between tiny gaps called synapses Neurons never cells NO MITOSIS in most parts of brain No New Neurons NNN Glia cells provide support for neurons and also participate in Within Neurons have electrical and chemical communications Between Neurons there is mainly chemical transmissions excitatory or inhibitory Neurotransmitters Neuromodulators acetylcholine epinephrine glutamate excite GABA inhibit Neuron s 4 functional zones Input zone receives information from other cells Integration zone decision to produce the neural signal axon hillock Conduction zone transmits the information over distances Output zone information transfers to other cells Dendrites They taper off the further they are from the cell body Axon The thickness of the axon stays the same no matter how farm from the cell body Axon Hillock receives information from stimulation integrates it and makes decision to transmit information through axon and to the terminals across the synapse and to another cell excitory or inhibitory Axon wrapped with myelin sheaths to increase speed of info transfer and to protect axon MS Issues with myelin sheaths CNS Node of Ranvier Gaps between the myelin sheaths where information can jump in between Familiarize with Neuron cell Different Neurons 1 Sensory neuron input zone afferent 2 Interneurons integration zone 3 Motor neurons output zone efferent AFFERENT OUTSIDE INTO SPINAL CORD EFFERENT FROM SPINAL CORD TO OUTSIDE NERVOUS SYSTEM S A M E Sensory Afferent Motor Efferent 4 Multipolar neuron Most common 5 Bipolar neuron in your eyes 6 Unipolar neuron Not all neurons are myelinated short axons aren t necessary to myelinate doesn t need the speed mainly interneurons Synapses a gap between two neighboring neurons Pre synaptic has vesicles that carry neurotransmitters Synaptic cleft narrow space in between the pre and post Post synaptic has neurotransmitter receptors Binding Neurotransmitter binds to the receptor one key can open multiple locks neurotransmitters can bind to many different receptors for a certain transmission of info Ligands bind to receptors Types of Synapses don t have to remember just know there are different types Axo dendritic axon to dendrite Axo somatic axon to cell body Axo axonic axon to axon Dendro dendritic dendrite to dendrite Glia cells 1 Oligodendrocyte makes myelin sheaths in CNS brain spinal cord star like structure has a few extensions 2 Schwann cell makes myelin sheaths in PNS everything else 3 Astrocyte looks like a star has many extensions compared to oligodendrocyte Between the blood vessels neurons for nutrients into neurons Borders blood vessels from neurons Reason for brain cancers squeezes neurons if they get really big 4 Microglia SMALL mobile immune cells in the brain Neuroinflammation in response to stimulus In Brain Grey matter on the outside cell body dendrites White matter more central mainly axons myelinated fatty insulation In Spinal Cord Grey matter In the center White matter on the outside Necrosis vs apoptosis Programmed cell death occurs in developing neurons and glial cells Necrosis cell death by injury disease expected homicide Apoptosis cell death by suicide during normal development spontaneous NGF Nerve Growth Factor Needed to grow neurons IT S VERY LIMITED if they can get the nutrients they survive and thrive if not they die They compete for the NGF in the beginning of our neural development Too many neurons are


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