State Differences and Relationships II

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State Differences and Relationships II

A further look at correlations and the state differences and relationships between variables. Graphs show the states actual position with the regression line showing the predicted position. Problems with empirical analyses and the possible relationships.


Lecture number:
5
Pages:
3
Type:
Lecture Note
School:
Texas A&M University
Course:
Pols 207 - State & Local Goverment
Edition:
1

Unformatted text preview:

POLS 207 1st Edition Lecture 5 Outline of Last Lecture I. State Relationships and Differences Outline of Current Lecture II. Correlations A. Graphs available on lecture slides III. Issues in Empirical Analyses a. Measurement b. Variable linkage c. Is there a relationship? IV. State Governments Current Lecture: Correlations The strength of a relationship is measured on a scale from -1 – 1. Educational Attainment – If you graduate from high school, you are more likely to graduate from college. Positive relationship with a score of .49. Percentage Metropolitan and Per Capita Income – Relationship seems to suggest that people who live in urban areas will also have higher incomes. The type of occupations that are available in the city have a higher income than in rural areas. More urban a state is, the higher the income level. Percentage Metropolitan and Abortion Rate – r=.67. This means that girls who live within cities are more likely to obtain an abortion than those who live in rural areas. There is more anonymity than in rural areas, and it is also easier to obtain an abortion. Therefore, there is more opportunity in this respect. Also the idea that in the city there is the proximity to people and women are more likely to find themselves in such a situation. However, correlation does not always mean causation. The percentage of abortions also depends on how restrictive the laws are in that state. Percentage Metropolitan and Murder Rate – r = .35. There is a quite weak correlation between urban environments and a high murder rate but it does exist. States such as Louisiana and Mississippi have a much higher murder rate than what is predicted. These states suffer from violent crime. Texas is slightly above the average but very close to the predicted point. Per Capita Income and State and Local Taxes – There is a very strong relationship, r = .84. This means the more that people earn, the more that they will be taxed. However, this means that the more you are taxed, the more you will gain from this. The states that tax the most spend the most on public services. Therefore, states such as Texas have very little taxes but the state also spends very little on their residents.



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