TAMU FINC 201 - Test Study Guide (10 pages)

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Test Study Guide



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Test Study Guide

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Pages:
10
School:
Texas A&M University
Course:
Finc 201 - Personal Finance
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PSY 120 1st Edition Exam 3 Study Guide Lectures 10 14 The following is the study guide provided by our professor on Blackboard with information from our text book added to enhance the study guide Exam 3 Study Guide This is not an exhaustive list of the material covered You will be responsible for all material covered in lecture and in the textbook Chapter 10 1 What were Freud s psychosexual stages of development Oral stage first 18 months The infant s pleasure centers on the mouth Sucking biting and chewing reduce tension and add pleasure Anal stage 18 36 months Childs greatest pleasure involves the anus Holding it and going to the bathroom This usually takes place during potty training Phallic stage 3 to 6 years Pleasure focuses on the genitals as the child discovers that self stimulation is enjoyable Latency period 6 years to puberty Freud believes that psychosexual development has paused Genital stage adolescence and adulthood Sexual reawakening source of pleasure shifts to outside people rather than self 2 Understand the following perspectives on human existence a Freud s The first five years are the most important for development sexuality is the most pervasive force behind personlity b Adler People are motivated by purposes and goal perfection not pleasure is the goal c Horney Believed that the prime motive for human existence is security not sex d Jung Everyone has a passive feminine side and assertive male side and a mask everyone wears during social interactions 3 What is Roger s theory Each person is born with natural capacities for growth and fulfillment and an innate sense of what is good and bad for us and a need for a positive regard from others a How do we develop a self concept according to his theory A self concept is developed during childhood and it reflects our genuine innate desires but can be influenced by conditions of worth that make us strive to actualize a self that we were not to be 4 What are the big five personality traits OCEAN Openness Imaginative or practical interested in variety or routine independent or conforming Ross Conscientiousness Organized or disorganized carful or careless disciplined or impulsive Monica Extraversion Sociable or retiring fun loving or somber affectionate or reserved Joey Agreeableness Softhearted or ruthless trusting or suspicious helpful or uncooperative Pheobe Neuroticism Calm or anxious secure or insecure self satisfied or self pitying Chandler 5 What is the difference between traits and states Traits are enduring characteristics which make up who you are whereas states are brief experiences that you stay in only for a short period of time 6 Understand Bandura s social Cognitive Theory It emphasizes the reciprocal influences of behavior environment and person cognitive factors a Reciprocal determinism the way behavior environment and person cognitive factors interact to create personality The environment can determine a person s behavior and person cognitive factors can act to change the environment b Observational learning Key aspect of how we learn Form ideas about the behavior of others and then possibly adopt this behavior c Personal control Regulation and control of our behavior despite the changing environment d Self efficacy The belief that one can accomplish a given goal or task and produce positive change 7 Understand Gray s reinforcement sensitivity theory Gray theorized that two neurological systems the behavioral action system and behavioral inhibition system explain differences in an organism s attention to environmental rewards and punishments and in this way shape personality 8 Understand self report tests Also called an objective test or an inventory a method of measuring personality characteristics that directly asks people whether specific items describe their personality traits a Empirically keyed tests A type of self report that presents many questionnaire items to two groups that are known to be different in some central way b MMPI Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory the most widely used and researched empirically keyed self report personality test c Assessment of the Big Five factors Evaluates the five factor model and six subdimensions that make up the five factors 9 Understand the different projective tests a Rorschach inkblot test A famous projective test that uses an individual s perception of inkblots to determine his or her personality b Thematic Apperception Test A projective test that is designed to elicit stories that reveal something about an individual s personality Chapter 11 1 Understand the following errors or biases a Fundamental attribution error Observers overestimation of the importance of internal traits and underestimation of the importance of external situations when they seek explanations of another person s behavior b False consensus effect Observers overestimation of the degree to which everybody else thinks or acts the way they do c Self serving bias The tendency to take credit for one s own successes and to deny responsibility for one s own failures 2 Understand cognitive dissonance An individual s psychological discomfort dissonance caused by two inconsistence thoughts 3 Understand the elaboration likelihood model Theory identifying two ways to persuade a central route and a peripheral route a Central route Engages someone thoughtfully with a sound logical argument b Peripheral route Non message factors such as the source s credibility and attractiveness or emotional appeals 4 Understand the following about aggression a Different types of aggression i Overt Physical or verbal behavior that directly harms another person ii Relational Behavior that is meant to harm the social standing of another person b The brain regions associated with aggression and how they are associated The frontal lobes are involved with executive functions and planning and self control thus play a role in aggression Low serotonin levels also have also been linked to aggression 5 Understand the Milgram experiment on obedience and the results The learner was strapped to a chair The experimenter made it look as if a shock generator was being connected to the learner s body through several electrodes The chart shows the percentage of teachers who stopped shocking the learner at each voltage level It was found that most teachers obeyed the experimenters commands to increase shock level 6 Understand the following about group behavior a Deindividuation The reduction in personal identity and


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