Purdue PSY 120 - Psych exam 1 SG (4 pages)

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Psych exam 1 SG



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Psych exam 1 SG

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Pages:
4
School:
Purdue University - Main Campus
Course:
Psy 120 - Elementary Psychology
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Chapter 1 Define Psychology The scientific study of behavior and mind Know the difference between a clinical psychologist and a psychiatrist Psychiatrist is an M D and can prescribe medicine Know the development of psychology o Structuralism Psychologists should seek the structure of the mind by breaking it down into elementary parts much as a chemist might try to understand a chemical compound Wilhelm Wundt and Titchener o Functionalism An early school of psychology functionalists believed that the proper way to understand mind and behavior is to first analyze their function and purpose William James and James Angell o Behaviorism A school of psychology proposing that the only proper subject matter of psychology is observable behavior rather than immediate conscious experience John Watson B F Skinner o Psychoanalysis Insight leads to understanding how memories and mental processes produce problem behaviors Freud o Humanistic psychology A movement in psychology that focuses on people s unique capacities for choice responsibility and growth Carl Rogers Chapter 3 Identify areas related to Neural areas transmission o Myelin sheath insulator that speeds up neural transmission o Cell body the soma the main body of the cell o Synaptic gap chemicals released from the terminal buttons flow into the synaptic gap communication o Resting potential 60 to 70 mV The tiny electrical charge in place between the inside and the outside of the resting neuron o Action potential The all or none electrical signal that travels down a neuron s axon All or nothing process The action potential either fires completely or not at all Once the firing threshold is reached the action potential begins and travels completely down the axon toward the terminal buttons Identify and define areas of the brain o Three major regions forebrain midbrain hindbrain Forebrain cerebrum thalamus hypothalamus Midbrain Tectum tegmentum Hindbrain Cerebellum pons medulla o Reticular formation sleep and wake cycles o Substansia nigra Releases dopamine Dopamine A neurotransmitter that has been linked to reward and pleasure systems in the brain decreased levels have been linked to Parkinson disease and increased levels have been linked to schizophrenia o Thalamus A relay station in the forebrain thought to be an important gathering point for input from the senses o Hypothalamus A forebrain structure thought to play a role in the regulation of various motivational activities including eating drinking and sexual behavior 4 F s o Frontal lobe contains the motor cortex and may be involved in higher level thought processes such as personality and critical thinking o Occipital lobe sight info processing o Parietal lobe touch info processing o Temporal lobe auditory info processing Chapter 5 Understand o Trichromatic theory A theory of color vision proposing that color information is extracted by comparing the relative activations of three different types of cone receptors o Opponent processes theory A theory of color vision proposing that cells in the visual pathway increase their activation levels to one color and decrease their activation levels to another color for example increasing to red and decreasing to green o Bottom up processing processing from physical message first o Top down processing processing from knowledge and beliefs first o Gestalt principles of organizationProximity If the elements of a display are close to each other that is they lie in close spatial proximity they tend to be grouped together as part of the same object Similarity Items that share physical properties that physically resemble each other are placed into the same set Closure Even if a figure has a gap or a small amount of its border is missing people still tend to perceive the object as a whole Good Continuation If lines cross or are interrupted people tend to still see continuously flowing lines Common Fate If things appear to be moving in the same direction people tend to group them together o Frequency theory The idea that pitch is determined partly by the frequency of neural impulses traveling up the auditory pathway Chapter 7 Understand the components of classical conditioning o Unconditioned stimulus A stimulus that automatically leads to an observable response prior to any training o Unconditioned response The observable response that is produced automatically prior to training on presentation of an unconditioned stimulus o Conditioned stimulus The neutral stimulus that is paired with the unconditioned stimulus during classical conditioning o Conditioned response The acquired response that is produced by the conditioned stimulus in anticipation of the unconditioned stimulus Understand the components of operant conditioning o Law of effect If a response in a particular situation is followed by a satisfying consequence it will be strengthened If a response in a particular situation is followed by an unsatisfying consequence it will be weakened o Reinforcement Positive An event that when presented after a response increases the likelihood of that response Negative An event that when removed after a response increases the likelihood of that response occurring again o Punishment Positive An event that when presented after a response lowers the likelihood of that response occurring again Negative An event that when removed after a response lowers the likelihood of that response occurring again o Schedules of partial reinforcement Fixed interval A schedule in which the reinforcement is delivered for the first response that occurs following a fixed interval of time Fixed ratio A schedule in which the number of responses required for reinforcement is fixed and does not change Variable interval A schedule in which the allotted time before a response will yield reinforcement varies from trial to trial Variable ratio A schedule in which a certain number of responses are required for reinforcement but the number of required responses typically changes


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