VCU PSYC 101 - EXAM 2 (2) (31 pages)

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EXAM 2 (2)



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EXAM 2 (2)

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Pages:
31
School:
Virginia Commonwealth University
Course:
Psyc 101 - Introduction to Psychology
Introduction to Psychology Documents
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What is Operant Conditioning It s one thing to classically condition a dog to salivate at the sound of a tone or a child to fear moving cars To teach an elephant to learn to walk on its hind legs or a child to say please we turn to operant conditioning Classical Conditioning and Operant Conditioning are both forms of associative learning Classical Conditioning forms association between Stimuli a conditioned stimulus or CS the US it signals It also involves respondent behavior actions that are automatic responses to a stimulus such as salivating in response to meat powder later in response to a tone In Operant Conditioning organisms associate their own actions with consequences Actions followed by reinforcers increase those followed by punishments often decrease Behavior that operates on the environment to produce rewarding or punishing stimulus is called Operant Behavior 1 With Classical conditioning we learn associations between events we do no control With Operant conditioning we learn associations between our behavior resulting events 2 Salivating in response to a tone paired with food is an RESPONDENT BEHAVIOR pressing a bar to obtain food is OPERANT BEHAVIOR MODULE 21 Basic Learning Concepts Classical Conditioning 1 What is learning what are some basic forms of learning o Learning is the process of acquiring through experience new information or behaviors o In associative learning we learn that certain events occur together o In classical conditioning we learn to associate two or more stimuli a stimulus is any event or situation that evokes a response o We associate stimuli that we do not control and we respond automatically This is called respondent behavior o In operant conditioning we learn to associate a response and its consequences These associations produce operant behaviors o Through cognitive learning we acquire mental information that guides our behavior For example in observational learning we learn new behaviors by observing events and watching others 2 What was behaviorism s view of learning Ivan Pavlov s work on classical conditioning laid the foundation for behaviorism the view that psychology should be an objective science that studies behavior without reference to mental processes The behaviorists believed that the basic laws of learning are the same for all species including humans 3 Who was Pavlov and what are the basic components of classical conditioning Ivan Pavlov a Russian physiologist created novel experiments on learning His research over the last three decades of his life demonstrated that classical conditioning is a basic form of learning Classical conditioning is a type of learning in which an organism comes to associate stimuli o In classical conditioning an Neutral Stimulus NS is a stimulus that elicits no response before conditioning o Unconditioned Response UR is an event that occurs naturally such as salivation in response to some stimulus o Unconditioned Stimulus US is something that naturally and automatically without learning triggers the unlearned response as food in the mouth triggers salivation o Conditioned Stimulus CS is a previously neutral stimulus such as a tone that after association with a Unconditioned Stimulus US such as food comes to trigger a Conditioned Response CR o Conditioned Response CR is the learned response salivating to the originally neutral but now conditioned stimulus 4 In classical conditioning what are the processes of acquisition extinction spontaneous recovery generalization and discrimination o In classical conditioning acquisition is associating an Neutral Stimulus with the Unconditioned Stimulus so that the Neutral Stimulus begins triggering the Conditioned Response o Acquisition occurs most readily when the Neutral Stimulus is presented just before ideally about a half second before Unconditioned Stimulus preparing the organism for the upcoming event This finding supports the view that classical conditioning is biologically adaptive o Through higher order conditioning a new Neutral Stimulus can become a new Conditioned Stimulus Extinction is diminished responding when the Conditioned Stimulus no longer signals an impending Unconditioned Stimulus o Spontaneous recovery is the appearance of a formerly extinguished response following a rest period o Generalization is the tendency to respond to stimuli that are similar to a Conditioned Stimulus o Discrimination is the learned ability to distinguish between a Conditioned Stimulus and other irrelevant stimuli 5 Why does Pavlov s work remain so important Pavlov taught us that significant psychological phenomena can be studied objectively and that classical conditioning is a basic form of learning that applies to all species 6 What have been some applications of Pavlov s work to human health and wellbeing How did Watson apply these principles to learned fears Classical conditioning techniques are used to improve human health and well being in many areas including behavioral therapy for some types of psychological disorders The body s immune system may also respond to classical conditioning Pavlov s work also provided a basis for Watson s idea that human emotions and behaviors though biologically influenced are mainly a bundle of conditioned responses Watson applied classical conditioning principles in his studies of Little Albert to demonstrate how specific fears might be conditioned TERMS Learning the process of acquiring through experience new information or behaviors learning that certain events occur together The events may be two stimuli as in classical conditioning or a response and its consequences as in operant conditioning Associative Learning Stimulus any event or situation that evokes a response Respondent Behavior behavior that occurs as an automatic response to some stimulus Operant Behavior behavior that operates on the environment producing consequences the acquisition of mental information whether by observing events by watching others or through language Cognitive Learning Classical Conditioning a type of learning in which one learns to link two or more stimuli and anticipate events Behaviorism the view that psychology 1 should be an objective science that 2 studies behavior without reference to mental processes Most research psychologists today agree with 1 but now with 2 Neutral Stimulus NS in classical conditioning a stimulus that elicits no response before conditioning in classical conditioning an unlearned naturally occurring response such


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