FIU BSC 1010 - chapter 3 outline (4 pages)

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chapter 3 outline



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chapter 3 outline

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4
School:
Florida International University
Course:
Bsc 1010 - General Biology I
General Biology I Documents
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Chapter 3 A Concept 3 1 a 4 main classes Lipids Proteins Carbohydrates Nucleic acid 1 The formation of bonds with carbon a Electron configuration of carbon gives it covalent compatibility with many different elements b The number of unpaired electrons in the valence shell of an atom is generally equal to the atoms valence 2 Molecular diversity arising from variation a Carbon chains form the skeletons of most organic molecules 3 Isomers a There s 3 types of isomers Structural isomers sis trans isomers and enantiomers b Single bonds allow the atoms they joined to rotate freely about the bond axis well double bonds do not permit such rotation c Molecules have emergent properties that depend on the specific arrangement of their atoms d The concept of enantiomers is important in the pharmaceutical industry because 2 enantiomers of a drug may not be equally effective 4 The chemical groups most important to life a The distinct properties of organic molecule depend not only on the arrangement of its carbon skeleton but also on the various chemical groups attached to that skeleton b The most important chemical groups are Hydroxyl group Carboxyl group Carbonyl group Amino group Sulfhydryl group Phosphate group Methyl group c Hydrocarbons are the simplest organic molecules as the underlying framework for more complex organic molecules B Concept 3 2 a Carbohydrates proteins and nucleic acids are chainlike molecules called polymers b Some monomers have functions of their own 1 Synthesis and breakdown of polymers a Chemical mechanisms by which cells make and breakdown polymers are the same in all cases b Dehydration reactions can be used to assemble the monomers into new different polymers that can perform specific functions required by the cell 2 The diversity of polymers a Molecular structure and function can be grouped roughly by class b For each class the large molecules have emergent properties not found in their individual building blocks C Concept 3 3 a The simplest carbohydrates are the monosaccharide b Disaccharides are double sugars consisting of 2 monosaccharides joined by a covalent bond c Term Organic compound Macromolecules Valence Hydrocarbons Isomers Definition A compound containing carbon Carbohydrates proteins fats and nucleic acids are huge and are therefore considered this The number of covalent bonds it can form Organic molecules consisting of only carbon and hydrogen Compounds that have the same number of atoms of the same elements but different structures and hence different properties Structural isomers Cis trans isomers Enantiomers Functional groups ATP Polymer Enzymes Monomers Dehydration reaction Hydrolysis Differ in the covalent arrangements of their atoms These items differ in their special arrangements due to the inflexibility of double bond Isomers that are mirror images of each other and that different shape due to the presence of an asymmetric carbon Of an asymmetric carbon Chemical groups that affect molecular function by being directly involved in the chemical reaction Consists of an organic molecule called adenosine attached to a string of 3 phosphate groups Long molecule consisting of many similar or identical building blocks linked by covalent bonds Specialized macromolecules that speed up chemical reactions The repeating units that serve as the building blocks of a polymer Loss of a water molecule The reverse of the dehydration reaction means water breakage


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