GT PSYC 2240 - Chapter+3 (50 pages)

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Chapter+3



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Chapter+3

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Pages:
50
School:
Georgia Tech
Course:
Psyc 2240 - Personality Theory
Personality Theory Documents
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Assessment Effect Size and Ethics 2016 W W Norton Company Inc What does your major say about your personality http www theatlantic com science archive 2016 01 my major my self 426984 utm sour ce SFFB The Personality Puzzle Seventh Edition Copyright 2016 W W Norton Company Objectives Discuss the nature of personality assessment Discuss whether personality tests provide S or B data Discuss projective and objective tests Discuss methods of objective test construction Discuss evaluation using significance testing and effect sizes Discuss ethical issues related to assessment 2016 W W Norton Company Inc 1 The Nature of Personality Assessment Personality Motives intentions goals strategies and how people perceive and construct the world Happy v Sad Optimistic v Pessimistic Attracted to same v opposite sex 2016 W W Norton Company Inc 2 Personality Tests Widely used tests MMPI CPI 16 PF Omnibus inventories versus one trait measures Most tests provide S data Some tests provide B data MMPI Implicit Association Test IAT I prefer a shower to a bath empathy 3 2016 W W Norton Company Inc IAT 2016 W W Norton Company Inc 4 IAT 2016 W W Norton Company Inc 5 IAT 2016 W W Norton Company Inc 6 Personality Tests IAT Theory People who implicitly or nonconsciously know they have a certain trait will respond faster when the trait is paired with me 2016 W W Norton Company Inc 8 Personality Tests Projective Tests Rorschach test Draw A Person test Thematic Apperception Test TAT http www utpsyc org TATintro 2016 W W Norton Company Inc 10 Personality Tests Projective Tests 2016 W W Norton Company Inc 11 Personality Tests Projective Tests 2016 W W Norton Company Inc 12 Personality Tests Projective Tests Analysis of content of stories letters and speeches Mostly used by clinical psychologists Provide B data 2016 W W Norton Company Inc 13 Personality Tests Projective Tests Disadvantages Validity evidence is scarce Expensive and time consuming A psychologist cannot be sure about what they mean 2016 W W Norton Company Inc 14 Personality Tests Projective Tests Advantages Good for breaking the ice Some skilled clinicians may be able to use them to get information not captured in other types of tests 2016 W W Norton Company Inc 15 Personality Tests Evaluating the Rorschach and the TAT Some evidence of validity Rorschach Used by 82 of clinical psychologists fourth most used test Best results with two scoring methods Valid for predicting certain outcomes Suicide attendance at treatment sessions commitment to mental hospital TAT 2016 W W Norton Company Inc 16 Personality Tests Objective Tests Validity and the subjectivity of test items I like mechanics magazines Items are still not absolutely objective Some subjectivity in interpretation of meaning may be good Why so many items The principle of aggregation Spearman Brown formula 2016 W W Norton Company Inc 18 10 items reliability of 60 Adding 10 items 20 total 75 Double the items 40 total 86 2016 W W Norton Company Inc 18 Methods of Objective Test Construction Rational Based on theory but sometimes less systematic Provides S data high face validity 2016 W W Norton Company Inc 19 Methods of Objective Test Construction Rational Four conditions for validity Items mean the same thing to the test taker and creator Capability for accurate self assessment Willingness to make an accurate and undistorted report Items must be valid indicators of the construct 2016 W W Norton Company Inc 20 2016 W W Norton Company Inc 21 Methods of Objective Test Construction Factor Analytic Steps for using this method Generate a long list of objective items Administer these items to a large number of people Analyze with a factor analysis Consider what the items that group together have in common and name the factor 2016 W W Norton Company Inc 21 Methods of Objective Test Construction Factor Analytic What do these items have in common 1 2 3 4 In most ways my life is close to my ideal The conditions of my life are excellent I am satisfied with my life So far I have gotten the important things I want in my life 5 If I could live my life over I would change almost nothing 2016 W W Norton Company Inc 22 Music Preference Mellow Unpretentious Sophisticated Intense Contemporary 2016 W W Norton Company Inc 24 2016 W W Norton Company Inc 25 Methods of Objective Test Construction Factor Analytic Limitations The quality of information from the factor analysis is limited by the quality of items Difficulty and subjectivity of deciding how items are conceptually related Factors don t always make sense Uses of factor analysis Reduce list of traits to an essential few Refine personality tests 2016 W W Norton Company Inc 23 Evaluating Assessment and Research Significance Testing Statistical significance definition a result that would only occur by chance less than 5 of the time Null hypothesis significance testing NHST p level 05 probability that a difference of that size would be found if the actual size of the difference were zero If the result is significant the common interpretation is that the statistic probably did not arise by chance its real value is probably not zero 2016 W W Norton Company Inc 27 Null hypothesis Treatment will not change our subjects in any meaningful way Alternative hypothesis Treatment does in fact change our subjects in a meaningful and measurable way 2016 W W Norton Company Inc 28 Interpreted by MOST probability that the research hypothesis is true 95 of the time Actual interpretation The significance level gives the probability of getting the result one found IF the null hypothesis were true 2016 W W Norton Company Inc 29 The probability that a person is dead given that a shark has bitten off his head is 1 0 However the probability that a person s head was bitten off by a shark given that he is dead is much lower 2016 W W Norton Company Inc 30 Evaluating Assessment and Research Significance Testing Problems with NHST Significant does not necessarily mean strong or important The logic is difficult to describe and understand The criterion for significance is an arbitrary rule of thumb 05 v 06 Chances of significance vary with sample size 2016 W W Norton Company Inc 28 Evaluating Assessment and Research Effect Size More meaningful than a significance p level Correlation coefficient Can be used for correlational and experimental studies Between 1 and 1 If 0 then there is no relationship Positive and negative correlations 2016 W W Norton Company Inc 30 Evaluating Assessment and


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