UNC-Chapel Hill EXSS 276 - EXAM 5 Study Guide (15 pages)

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EXAM 5 Study Guide



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EXAM 5 Study Guide

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Pages:
15
School:
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
Course:
Exss 276 - Human Physiology
Human Physiology Documents

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Chapter 20 The Heart Anatomy of the Heart o Size of fist o Location Sits on mediastinum an atomical region that extends from the sternum to the vertebral column About 2 3 lies to the left of the body s midline o Apex of heart bottom of heart Formed by the tip of left ventricle and rests on the diaphragm o Heart Layers 3 layers Pericardium membrane outer layer Membrane that surrounds and protects the heart 2 main parts fibrous pericardium serous pericardium has freedom to contract pericarditis inflammation of the pericardium o leads to a build up of pericardial fluid that compresses the heart and makes it hard to fill up pericardial fluid helps reduce friction between layers 1 Epicardium contains coronary vasculature Has adipose tissue that houses the major coronary and cardiac vessels of heart 2 Myocardium Responsible for the pumping action of the heart Composed of cardiac muscle tissue o have striated involuntary fibers 3 Endocardium smooth and helps minimize friction Innermost layer o Heart Structures 4 chambers 2 superior receiving chambers atria o right and left atrium 2 inferior pumping chambers ventricles o right and left ventricles Arteries carry blood away from heart Coronary artery main supply of blood Aorta splits off and goes to various systemic arteries that supply body Veins carry blood to heart Superior vena cava inferior vena cava both dump into right atrium Coronary sinus dumps into right atrium o From blood actually supplying heart o The Heart Highway Right atrium goes thru tricuspid valve to right ventricle thru pulmonary valve to pulmonary trunk arteries go to lung then pulmonary veins goes to left atrium thru bicuspid valve to left ventricle thru aorta valve to aorta goes to aorta arteries capillaries veins vena cava o Myocardial Wall Thickness pressure and work done by chamber High blood pressure is bad bc the heart has to pump harder Ventricle walls are thicker than atria Left ventricle is much thicker because the blood is going to the whole body Circulation o Principal types Pulmonary right Receives dark red deoxygenated blood from systemic circulation o From body to lung R ventricle pulmonary valve pulmonary trunk arteries lungs pulmonary veins left atrium Systemic left Receives red oxygenated blood from the lungs o Pumps blood at higher pressure Blood enters systemic arteries that carry it to all organs throughout the body o Except for the air sacs alveoli Give rise to smaller diameter arterioles lead into extensive beds of systemic capillaries Left ventricle aortic valve aorta capillaries vena cava coronary artery right atrium o The output of one becomes the input of the other o YOU TRI BEFORE YOU BI o Right to left Atrioventricular Valves o Also known as tricuspid and bicuspid valve Because located between atrium and ventricle o Blood flow is unidirectional o When open relaxed because chordae tendineae are slack blood moves from a higher pressure in the atria to a lower pressure in the ventricles o When closed papillary



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