UNC-Chapel Hill MCRO 251 - MCRO Final (81 pages)

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MCRO Final



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MCRO Final

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Pages:
81
School:
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
Course:
Mcro 251 - Introductory Medical Microbiology
Introductory Medical Microbiology Documents
Unformatted text preview:

Please use the tables indicated for each disease as flashcards starting points Printing off the PowerPoint is a quick and easy way of doing this I will ask about any information on these tables with the exception of most incubation periods unless this plays an important role in the spread of disease 1 Overview of disease A Read over introduction for all systems B For any disease from Chapter 16 and 19 brief introduction 1 What is a normal pattern of infection a b c d 2 a 3 a 4 a b Incubation time time before you show any signs or symptoms of disease i People are not aware that they are infected Prodromal period start to not feel good malaise when you feel something coming down on you know something is wrong Acute phase when organism is starting to replicate and take ofer space in body i Where you show signs and symptoms of disease together they make the disease syndrome ii Symptoms are felt felt but not measured iii Signs are seen observed you see it like if person is having rash 1 B 1 d iii 1 Ex vomiting diarrhea When are you infectious Infectious during ALL ANY STAGES How do we know what is causing an infection Have to have infectious organism have right dose and culture it What is an infectious dose Infectious dose ID ID of infectious organism in half od animals tested If under ID more than likely to not get infected 1 c Common cold rhinovirus had ID50 of 1 d LD50 lethal dose of infectious organism in half of animals tested C Where does the pathogen come from Ch 19 What is its reservoir Where organisms can grow Reservoir only place organisms can grow If human reservoir hard to determine disease o Only cause diseases in humans How is transmitted o Horizontal transmission refers to all other types of transfers includes person to person or environment to person direct or indirect Direct transmission contact droplet spread o Contact with things that are contaminated Infant with poop all over him Biting food and giving to baby oral microbiota Handshakes kissing touching hugging Skin to skin transfers your microbiota to person touching o Droplet transmission land in 3ft area from person that Is coughing or sneezing o Vertical transmission when you get something while your preggo and can cross the placenta and infect fetus Indirect transmission o Airborne droplet nuclei When person sneezes and small droplets bind to bacteria in AIR and floats o Vehicle transmission Fig 19 6 o Fomites An inanimate object Handle of car money coins grocery handle cell phones doorknobs remote controllers o Food o Water Fecal water where people use the restroom in lakes etc Vectors Biological mechanical o Biological Vectors Things that transmit organisms o Mechanical vectors where flies land on poop and then food where organism transmit one site from another 2 Blood disease Fig 25 1 KNOW CHARTS A Discussion of lymphatics B Lymphangitis Fig 25 2 infection inflammation of the lymphatic system vessel 2 3 Subactute Bacterial Endocarditis Table 25 1 signs and symptoms identify disease A Caused by a number of bacteria agents Less virulent pathogens cause subactute endocarditis such as S epidermidis and oral flora 1 Predisposing factors are heart defects scarring from other infections a Only seen when there is a problem with the heart 2 High levels of antibodies to oral bacteria occur causing immune complexes Type II hypersensitivites 3 Bacteria colonize heart tissue utilizing biofilm for protection Clots embolisms occur a Make biofilm that cause embolisms that occur in bloodstream 4 More severe pathogens cause acute endocarditis S aureus S pyogenes S pneumoniae which progresses more rapidly with more severe symptoms 5 History had some heart defect 6 not going to happen with a normal heart 7 Cause normal microbiota a virulent pathogen B Treatment Combination of drugs bactericidal antibiotics necessary to treat emerging antibiotic resistant organisms 3 4 Gram negative septicemia Sepsis Table 25 2 Fig 25 3 A Septic shock is most common with infections by Gram negative organisms staphylococci or meningococci 1 500 000 cases yr in US 40 60 mortality 2 Increasing incidence with multi drug resistant organisms especially superbug infections with CRE B Know Fig 25 3 This covers everything we have discussed in immunology regarding endotoxin 1 Toll like receptors detect PAMPs and DAMPs especially those detecting LPS and cause the release of a large number of mediators including TNF leukotrienes histamine and IL 1 causing inflammatory response drop in blood pressure 2 Endotoxin effect on phagocytes in lungs can cause irreversible lung damage even if infection is cleared 3 PMNs are non functional T helper cells and DCs undergo apoptosis and immunosuppression 4 C Review Endotoxin vs secreted exotoxins Table 16 2 5 Epstein Barr Virus EBV Table 25 8 add enlargement of spleen and T cytotoxic cells A Saliva transmission route of MONO DNA virus of herpes virus dsDNA are latent in body forever 1 Not by respiratory droplets B Herpesvirus family member enveloped dsDNA virus human only reservoir 1 virulence factor becomes latent in your body C Infectious mononucleosis KNOW Fig 25 7 inhibition of killing by NK cells 1 Found worldwide Disease mono more likely in developed countries Most people over 25 are seropositive 2 EBV persists in saliva for 18 months following recovery whenever EBV infected B cells reactivate a If b cells start to colonely expand 5 3 No vaccine no treatment 4 Symptom also enlargement of spleen a Person without spleen immunocompromised bc spleen in 2ndary organ that monitors blood 5 Spread by saliva have to have direct contact 6 Most seen in post adolescences 12yrs and developed countries 7 Are infectious during incubation period 8 Asymptomatic not expression virus no signs or symptoms of disease have EBV forever Fig 25 7 o 1st infects the pharynx throat enlargement of lymph nodes and spleen Saliva binds via viral receptors and binds to pharynx of oral cavitiy virus causes inflammation in tissue sore throat also makes new virus o oral mucous drained by lymphatic system o virus perculates thruout lymph node and receptors will allow it to bind to ANY b cell na ve mature b cell memory b cell etc 6 can infect b cell non specifically causes 2 kinds of infections productively b cell effector T cytotoxic cell is responsible of killing these infected cell controlled by t cytotoxic cells the way we stop the virus b cell infected forever with EBV make viral capsomeres nucleic acid viral proteins into MHC class 1 o all


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