UNC-Chapel Hill MCRO 251 - Exam 1 Study Guide - 251 (87 pages)

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Exam 1 Study Guide - 251



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Exam 1 Study Guide - 251

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Pages:
87
School:
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
Course:
Mcro 251 - Introductory Medical Microbiology
Introductory Medical Microbiology Documents
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Microbiology 251 I Overview of Medical Microbiology Information and Expectations II Overview Chapter 1 Bacteria Eukaryotes and Viruses are the primary players in infectious pathogenicity that we will discuss in this class however we will discuss a few eukaryotic organisms along the way The Key Terms and the Chapter Summaries are good sources for review of class material Assigned animations are helpful in understanding material for class are testable materials 1 What are we finding out about the microbes that live on and in us A Microbes in and on us all the time B Microbes bacteria cause disease which are everywhere C Can distinguish between good and bad microbes D Can be killed by with fire used antibiotics for everything bc they kill microbes but they harm humans by altering things 1 Antibiotics save lives when used correctly 2 Can burn out microbiota when used wrong 3 when taking antibiotics it is targeting the probiotics if taken for a viral infection instead of a bacterial infection E super bugs are completely resistant to every antibiotic 1 E coli 2 Gonorrhea 3 Super bugs are created by using antibiotics wrongly or nondiscriminatory a We wiped out all of the good bacteria and allowed bad bacteria in and overwhelm the environment 1 Ex lakes w bad bacteria F Microbiome consist of Microbiota 50 and Us 50 1 All kinds of human cells and everywhere bacteria cover these cells 2 Most bacteria cells live in our gut a If constipated ratio goes up b If massive explosion of microbiota ratio goes down 3 Consist of bacteria microphages viruses a there are normal fungi and archaea that live in the gut G Beginning to find out that microbiota is a whole new system 1 It is not them and us 2 Another system like respiratory system 3 System is unique bc the microbes on arms are different than the microbes on forehead 4 They have niches they evolve to we are them they are us H Important bc microbiome organ 1 Has to be feed 2 Kept healthy and loving us 3 Studies show a Microbiota from lean people and those who are obese were put into mice 1 Mice ate the same things content and energy 1 b c d e 2 Mice that got lean microbiota stayed lean and those with the obese microbiota got fat even though all mice ate same amount and calorie content a Calories in and out are the same are wrong it is our microbiota b When you breast feed a child only reason why child can take nutrition from breastmilk is bc there are microbes in gut that break milk down into useable nutritional packets that the child could not have absorbed unless there were bacteria in there that come w the breastmilk from the nipple as your breastfeeding and as your touching child that infuses into childs gut so that it can utilized breastmilk so that they can break it down and grow and nourish via microbiotas We now know that there all kinds of bacteria in oral cavity 1 Gum disease is a mechanism by which bacteria can bypass the lining that protects from outside of cavity to bloodstream 2 Oral microbiota specific kind can start an immune response to normal microbiota that can cause rheumatoid arthritis a Can be stopped if ppl are swabbed in the mouth and removing organism from oral cavity Certain microbiota can provoke a higher susceptibility to Tuberculosis 1 1 out of 10 10 of inflammation that is going on in their gut that is draining the rest of their body and affecting their immune system a and about whether or not you can respond to normal microbiota that way how microbiome affects anxiety and depression 1 gut microbiota is what wants craves carbs and sugar not the body 2 when you ve grown microbiota the bad bacteria is overwhelmed and secrete effectors into the body that can act on the brain and cause issues people who are very old and healthy have the microbiota of a normal young person 2 How to name living organisms use Scientific nomenclature A Escherichia coli Which is the specific epithet Which is the genus name 1 Genus is the first name a Always capitalized b Ex Escherichia 2 Species specific epithet is the 2nd name a Never capitalized B The genus name can be abbreviated once it has been indicated E coli S aureus 1 Can also be underline but normally italicized C Strain differences between species are indicated in different ways 1 Example E coli O157 H7 or Salmonella enterica Typhi 2 Strains are not italicized or underline 3 In chapter 1 details the three domains of living things Archaea Bacteria and Eukaryotes Fig 1 6 A Prokaryotes no true nucleus both divide by binary fission no organelles 1 Archaea a Unicellular b Love extreme environments 2 1 Grow in different niches 2 Deep vents in oceans 3 In gyzers 4 Organisms grow and live in boiling water 5 Some live in very cold environments c Not really in humans so have yet to find any that causes disease 1 There are archaea in oral cavity d No peptidoglycan 2 Bacteria a Unicellular b Cause human disease and health c The only thing on earth that have peptidoglycan B Eukaryotes true nucleus 1 Fungi Fig 1 9 molds yeasts a Yeast are single celled b Molds are multicellular 2 Protozoans Fig 1 11 single celled no cell wall paramecium amoeba a Has organelles b Can eat 3 Helminth round worms flatworms flukes a Multicellular parasites b Roundworms are usually found in the intestinal tract 1 Endemic in Africa c Flat Tapeworms is in raw fish d Flukes blood 3 C Non living microbes Fig 1 6 1 Viruses Fig 1 12 a Viruses are usually not named in the binomial manner like living organisms and usually just referred to by species names Examples in Table 13 1 you do NOT need to know this table b Just protein nucleic acid in most basic form c Viruses are obligate intercellular parasites BC unless they can get into a living cell they are inert 1 When it binds to a living cell injects its genetic material into cell the genetic material borges the cell cause the liver bacteria cell to a viral producing factory making more viruses d Bc the are not living organisms we do not use scientific nomenclature just species name 2 Prions Fig 1 14 just an infectious protein No genetic information no mutations a Prion proteins exist on everyone 1 in nervous tissue b Ex mad cow disease 1 Difference from infectious prion protein to a normal confirmer 2 If abnormal confirmer in ingested it rides on immune cells and is indestructible a Not even acid in gut will break it down 4 b Only way to destroy prions is to burn it to a cinder c If it rides into brain it binds to next confirmer to change its shape and the next and next


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