Purdue AGR 12300 - Stuff (7 pages)

Previewing pages 1, 2 of 7 page document View the full content.
View Full Document

Stuff



Previewing pages 1, 2 of actual document.

View the full content.
View Full Document
View Full Document

Stuff

31 views


Pages:
7
School:
Purdue University
Course:
Agr 12300 - Introduction to College of Agriculture Interdisciplinary Agriculture Academic Programs
Unformatted text preview:

Schizophrenia Research 176 2016 520 526 Contents lists available at ScienceDirect Schizophrenia Research journal homepage www elsevier com locate schres Impaired error processing in late phase psychosis Four year stability and relationships with negative symptoms Dan Foti a Greg Perlman b Greg Hajcak c Aprajita Mohanty c Felicia Jackson c Roman Kotov b a b c Department of Psychological Sciences Purdue University West Lafayette IN United States Department of Psychiatry Stony Brook University Stony Brook NY United States Department of Psychology Stony Brook University Stony Brook NY United States a r t i c l e i n f o Article history Received 29 January 2016 Received in revised form 6 May 2016 Accepted 9 May 2016 Available online 24 May 2016 Keywords EEG ERP Error related negativity Error positivity Schizophrenia a b s t r a c t Error processing is impaired in psychosis and numerous event related potential studies have found reductions in the error related negativity ERN and more recently the error positivity Pe The stability of reduced ERN Pe in psychosis however is unknown In a previous cross sectional report reduced ERN was associated with negative symptom severity and reduced Pe with a diagnosis of schizophrenia versus other psychosis Here we test the stability of impaired error processing over a four year follow up and relationships with subdimensions of negative symptoms The ERN and Pe were recorded from individuals with psychotic disorders twice 79 individuals were assessed 15 years after rst hospitalization and 69 were assessed at 19 years 59 26 with schizophrenia 33 with other psychotic disorders had data at both assessments At 19 years the Pe was blunted in schizophrenia The ERN and Pe exhibited temporal stability over the four years r 0 59 and 0 60 respectively Reduced ERN and Pe correlated with the negative symptom subdimensions of inexpressivity and avolition respectively and not with psychotic or disorganized symptoms Moreover 15 year ERN predicted an increase in inexpressivity by year 19 No evidence was found for the reverse negative symptoms did not predict change in ERN Pe Similar to non clinical samples the ERN and Pe show impressive four year stability in late phase psychosis The ERN and Pe are promising neural measures for capturing individual differences in psychotic disorders particularly with regard to negative symptomatology They may prove to be useful clinically for forecasting illness course and as treatment targets 2016 Elsevier B V All rights reserved 1 Introduction Executive function is impaired in schizophrenia Kerns et al 2008 and is a proposed cognitive mechanism for poor functioning Bowie et al 2008 One key aspect of executive function is error processing which entails the evaluation of errors as salient events followed by the dynamic adjustment of cognitive control to improve performance Kerns et al 2008 Event related potential ERP studies of error processing in schizophrenia have focused on the error related negativity ERN which occurs 0 100 ms following errors on speeded tasks Falkenstein et al 1991 Gehring et al 1993 and re ects errorrelated activation of the anterior cingulate cortex ACC Holroyd and Coles 2002 Numerous studies have observed a blunted ERN in schizophrenia Alain et al 2002 Bates et al 2002 2004 Foti et al 2012 2013 Horan et al 2012 Kansal et al 2014 Kopp and Rist 1999 Mathalon et al 2002 Morris et al 2006 which is related to poor executive function Kim et al 2006 A blunted ERN has also been observed Corresponding author at Department of Psychological Sciences Purdue University 703 Third Street West Lafayette IN 47907 United States E mail address foti purdue edu D Foti http dx doi org 10 1016 j schres 2016 05 009 0920 9964 2016 Elsevier B V All rights reserved in other psychotic disorders Foti et al 2012 2013 Minzenberg et al 2014 high risk individuals Laurens et al 2010 Perez et al 2012 and unaffected siblings Simmonite et al 2012 Studies have also examined the error positivity Pe which peaks 200 400 ms following errors The ERN and Pe track distinct stages of error processing early automatic error detection and later conscious error recognition respectively Hughes and Yeung 2011 Nieuwenhuis et al 2001 Pe relates to post error adjustment at the between subjects level Hajcak et al 2003 whereas ERN relates to trial by trial adjustment Cavanagh and Shackman 2015 Initial studies in schizophrenia failed to nd group differences in Pe amplitude versus controls Alain et al 2002 Horan et al 2012 Kim et al 2006 Mathalon et al 2002 Morris et al 2006 perhaps due to limited sample sizes and signal lters that attenuated the Pe but not the ERN By contrast three recent studies have observed a blunted Pe speci cally in schizophrenia both early Perez et al 2012 and later in the course of illness Foti et al 2012 Kansal et al 2014 The ERN and Pe are promising measures of impaired error processing with the ERN reduced in psychotic illness broadly and the Pe reduced speci cally in schizophrenia Previous studies have primarily been cross sectional however leaving it unclear how impaired error D Foti et al Schizophrenia Research 176 2016 520 526 521 processing relates to course of illness In non clinical samples the ERN and Pe are highly stable Weinberg and Hajcak 2011 Similarly high temporal stability among patients would indicate chronic neural de cits rather than indicators of current clinical state In this case it is possible that reduced ERN Pe amplitudes may relate to long term illness course On the other hand if the ERN and Pe uctuate over time in patients i e show low temporal stability this would raise the question of what is responsible for uctuations over time e g whether changes in ERN Pe amplitudes map onto concurrent changes in symptoms and functioning In one study ERN amplitude partially normalized following antipsychotic treatment over a six week follow up suggesting short term improvement with clinical sate Bates et al 2004 longerterm assessment is necessary to more fully capture the stability of these neural indices An additional question is which speci c illness features relate to impaired error processing We previously observed that reduced ERN mapped onto concurrent negative but not positive or disorganized symptoms independent of diagnosis Foti et al 2012 which is consistent with neuropsychological research Ventura et al 2009 and proposals that negative symptoms and cognitive de cits are related aspects of psychotic illness Harvey


View Full Document

Access the best Study Guides, Lecture Notes and Practice Exams

Loading Unlocking...
Login

Join to view Stuff and access 3M+ class-specific study document.

or
We will never post anything without your permission.
Don't have an account?
Sign Up

Join to view Stuff and access 3M+ class-specific study document.

or

By creating an account you agree to our Privacy Policy and Terms Of Use

Already a member?