UAB BY 116 - 02A_Ch 2_Biomolecules_Notes (1) (9 pages)

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02A_Ch 2_Biomolecules_Notes (1)



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02A_Ch 2_Biomolecules_Notes (1)

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Pages:
9
School:
University of Alabama at Birmingham
Course:
By 116 - Introductory Human Physiology
Introductory Human Physiology Documents
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Biomolecules Working Molecules of Cells Support Reading in Chapter 2 Silverthorn 7th Ed Learning Assignments 1 Identify the major and trace elements found in biological life on the periodic table and conceptualize Why these elements and not others are found in humans 2 Name the major molecules found in the cellular environment and explain the difference between inorganic vs organic forms Macronutrient vs Micronutrient Simple vs Complex and Monomeric vs Polymeric 3 Describe the Life Requiring biomolecules by Family and family members chemical attributes relevant purpose or work performed and the best nutritional source and healthy amounts Why Do This Chemical Work Human Phys Essential and Trace Elements in Humans Element Protons Neutrons Electrons Mass in gram 1 mole 1 mole 6 02 X 1023 atoms 99 1 Mass Major Trace Biological Elements are Low Atomic Mass Highly Reactive Inorganic and Organic based Gilchrist Molecular Compounds Two or More Elements BONDED Together Bond Strength and Stability Strong Bonds High D Energy e Cloud Weak Sharing Nonpolar Give eStrong Receive Polar Ionic bonds break and form spontaneously Ions Cation charge Anion Charge Human Physiology Covalent bonds are stable Polar unequal sharing hydrophilic H2O Loving Nonpolar equal sharing Hydrophobic H2O Fearing 1 Basic Chemical Reaction Bond Strength and Stability Weak Bonds Important to stabilize structure Van der Waals Forces Proton Electron Resonance Hydrogen stable dipole Gilchrist Cell Environment glucose glucose ECF 300mOsm PO4 glucose PO4PO4 PO4 glucose PO4 Ca Ca Ca glucose PO4 Ca glucose Ca ICF 300mOsm glucose What is Shown Here Identify any Concepts Gilchrist glucose http health gov dietaryguidelines 2015 guidelines Calories OUT Processed Foods AVOID Solid Fat Added Sugar Foods SoFAS Fresh Whole Foods A combination of All Biomolecules in Differing Amounts Gilchrist Human Physiology Calories IN 2 Micronutrient Biomolecule Families Simple Water 65 100 oz 2 3 L per day Gases Oxygen Carbon Dioxide 300 400 ml min Nitrogenous Compound Urea Acid Carbonic Lactic Hydrochloric Uric Acids Electrolytes Na Cl K Ca 2 Mg 2 HPO3 H3O NH4 HCO30 5 4 gram per day Salt H2O Ions Acid Base Zinc Transition Metals Vitamins mg mg per day Manganese Copper Minerals mg mg per day K Fluoride Molybdenum Macronutrient Biomolecule Family Carbon Complex 4 individual Families Carbohydrates 8 9 oz per day Lipids 1 2 oz per day Protein 8 9 oz per day Nucleotides Nucleic Acid 1 Carbohydrates Sugars Unifying Chemical Composition CnH2nOn Hexose 6C hydrophilic Water Soluble a Simple Carbohydrates Monosaccharide Disaccharide Disaccharides Combinations of Glucose with self or the other Monosaccharides Sucrose Maltose Lactose Gilchrist Human Physiology 3 Carbohydrates cont Complex Carbohydrates Polysaccharides b Complex Carbohydrates Polysaccharides Chains Clinical Applications Gilchrist Carbohydrates cont Biological Uses of Carbohydrates Primary Energy Fuel glycolysis Glucose is major energy fuel in All Tissues 4 Calories per gram 4 g 1 teaspoon cube Secondary Functional groups of other Biomolecules Ribose and Deoxyribose Pentose 5C sugars Nucleic Acids Glycosylation Process of adding sugar to other Molecules Glycoproteins and Glycolipids Gilchrist Kwashiokore Marasmus Carbohydrates cont Amount 40 60 of Total Calories 250g Over 40 should be fiber Less than 25 g of added sugar Sources Whole Grain Excellent Cellulose Polysaccharides Disaccharide Vitamins Vegetable Excellent Cellulose Polysaccharides Disaccharide Vitamins Fruit Excellent Disaccharide Good Cellulose Vitamins Dairy Ok Disaccharide excellent Fat Vitamins Honey All Monosaccharide Nothing else Meat Low Carbohydrate Good minerals Human Physiology 4 Lipids Molecules that are all greasy insoluble in H2O Biological Types Hydrocarbons Nonpolar Hydrophobic Fatty Acids Solids and Oils Room Temperature Major Human Saturated Fat CH3 CH2 nCO2H 16 C Acid Major Human Monounsaturated Fat CH3 CH2 7CH CH CH2 nCO2H 18 C Omega Fatty Acids Healthy Diet CH3 CH2 4CH CHCH2CH CH CH2 nCO2H Gilchrist Phospholipid Functional Molecule 1 Palmitic Acid 1 Oleic Acid Structural Formations Purpose 50 of Plasma Membrane Chemistry Transport Compartmentalization Signaling Gilchrist Triglyceride Fat Storage Insulation Stored Energy Fuel Male 12 20 mass Female 18 25 mass Stored in the Subcutaneous Fat Layer mostly Gilchrist Human Physiology 5 20 Carbon Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Eicosanoid Fats Dietary Omega Fats Used to Vital Nutrient Make Local Hormones Leukotrienes Prostaglandins Tissue Immune Blood Pain Health Clotting Repair Stimulus Cholesterol and Steroids Converted to Hormone Signals BAD Suffix ol or one Total Blood Cholesterol 200 mg dL Good Fat Soluble Vitamins LDL 100 129 mg dL 3 HDL 40 60 mg dL 1 Are Cofactors compound required in a chemical Rx Cannot be made by human cells Eye Liver Small Intestine Most work effectively when all are present and proper minerals available Blood Clotting Too Much or Too Little will produce Disease Gilchrist Human Physiology 6 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System BRFSS Center for Disease Control Male 25 Mass Female 30 Mass Obesity diagnosed 78 6 million In 1962 13 Adults were Obese In 2014 35 Adults are Obese No State under 20 Anymore 41 States are 25 and Higher Midwest Southeast Northeast West https stateofobesity org adult obesity Robert Wood Johnson Foundation and Trust for America s Health Lipids cont 24g Amount 10 30 of Total Nutrient 20 75g day Sources Fish Excellent Fats Omegas and Protein some glycogen Soybean Excellent Protein Carbohydrate Vitamins minerals Nuts Excellent Protein Carbohydrate Good Fats Vitamins minerals Dairy Excellent Fat Vitamins low unsaturated Fat Lean Red Meats Excellent Protein Carbohydrate Vitamins minerals Any Fried Food Gilchrist Human Physiology 7 Nucleotides and Nucleic Acid Chemical Composition Pentose 1 3 groups Functional Unit For Energy ATP GTP Nucleic Acid bases Local Hormone Intracellular message cAMP Base Types Adenine Guanine Thymine Cytosine Uracil Purines Pyrimidines Gilchrist Nucleotides make Nucleic Acids tRNA Transcribed Copy Translated By DNA Biological Uses Information Storage Gilchrist mRNA Information Usage rRNA Protein Formation Amino Acids 20 Total 9 essential Hydrophobic Hydrophilic Acidic Alkaline Gilchrist Human Physiology 8 Proteins Working units of cells Most Diverse Molecules Peptides form by a peptide bond All Proteins have an Amine N Terminus and a Carboxyl C Terminus Amino Acids Reactive Groups ATP H2 O Gilchrist


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