UAB BY 116 - 01A_Ch 1_Physiology Introduction_Notes (4 pages)

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01A_Ch 1_Physiology Introduction_Notes



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01A_Ch 1_Physiology Introduction_Notes

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4
School:
University of Alabama at Birmingham
Course:
By 116 - Introductory Human Physiology
Introductory Human Physiology Documents
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Chapter 1 Silverthorn Ed 7e Physiology as a Science Learning Assignments What Should I Study Professor 1 Define Physiology and Contrast it to the Science of Anatomy 2 Explain the Topics we Study to Understand Physiology by Ordering Biological topics as to their increasing complexity Defining each Topic s elemental subjects to be studied 3 Name the human physiological systems Recall the major organs within each system and learn the primary purpose for each system 4 Describe and know the concepts of Integration Basal vs maximal limits and the idea of Physiological Reserve 5 Explain the Kinds of Questions Physiologists Ask and the Kinds of Answers sought 6 Define and Explain the Major physiological Themes We Must Account for when Studying Any Physiological Work Studied Homeostasis and Homeostatic Reflex types Mass Balance and Mass Flow Organ and System Integration Chemical Metabolism and Energetics Control Human Physiology Organization of living Matter The Span of Physiology Topics We Study Figure 1 1 Increase in Complexity Emergent Properties Anatomy is to Required Form as Physiology is to Required Work Structure Dictates Function Function Creates Structure To KNOW Life Processes Requires Us to Examine the total Breadth of physiological topics within this organization THEREFORE PHYSIOLOGY is ALL the WORK of Molecules Cells Tissues Organs Organ Systems Together REQUIRED for the Vitality of Organism Human Physiology Slide 2 Cytology is the study of Cellular Physiology and Anatomy The Cell is the Fundamental Unit of Life Why Histology Biochemistry Joined Cells of Common Function Chemical Processes What are the 2 Primary Types of Chemical Rxs Human Physiology Human Physiology Major Properties of a Cell Originate from Preexisting cells Have DNA Protein Molecules Growth Cycle Replicate Compartmentalize Guided Work Sense Exchange with Environment Adapt and Evolve in dynamic Environmental Pressures Works Against Avoids Equilibrium What are the 4 Primary Tissues 1 Human Organ Systems and Functions Structure Function Concept Think Nouns and Verbs 1 Primary vs Secondary Functions Integrated Functions 10 2 Table 1 2 9 8 Physiologic range maximum 3 LIFE REQUIREMENT Reserve basal 4 7 5 6 Human Physiology Slide 4 The Approach to Investigating Physiology Physiology Questioning the Works for LIFE Physiological Questions Asked and Answer Types Teleological Question Why does MY Blank exist Represents a Significance The purpose Mechanistic Question Why does MY Blank exist Represents an Ordered Process over Time the steps SERIAL PROCESS Steps CONDITIONAL PROCESS Circumstances Physiology Questions Life s Facts Concepts Principles Processes Decisions Solutions Questions to Ask Answer with Any Physiology Topic ACTIVE LEARNING What is IT Where does IT occur When is IT occurring How does IT occur Why is IT important If X then How will or Did IT change If IT occurs then how is X affected Human Physiology Slide 5 Themes of Physiology Homeostasis Stable Internal Environment through Dynamic Adaptation Monitored and Adjusted Variables Claude Bernard Nutrients Fluid Gases Muscle Tension Defenses Temp Stretch Growth pH Waste Cognition Monitoring Direct Indirect Threshold Concept Figure 1 8 Human Physiology Human Physiology Decisions Voluntary or Involuntary Walter Cannon controlled stability of the internal milieu Manipulated Variable Independent Changed Variable Dependent Short Long Term Intense Maintenance Slide 6 2 Response Loops in Homeostatic Reflexes 1 Negative Feedback Loop Output will Restore Set Point cause reflex to Terminate 2 Positive Feedback Loop Continuation Output is Reason for More Output 3 Feed Forward Loop No Input Controller Anticipates Need for Output Human Physiology Slide 7 Themes of Physiology Homeostasis Stable Internal Environment through Dynamic Adaptation to External Environmental Pressure Start Stimulus 15o C o 15 C 30o C 8 Keys to Learning Define the Variables Steps Sequential Process If Environment Changes Then What Happens 15o C 9 o 15o C 10 15 C Human Physiology Explain what happens after 7 Try Some Questions About the Previous Slide What are the Variables Studied in the System Which Variable is Independent Dependent Which is the External Variable Internal Why does the Fish Tank Cool down What is the Homeostatic Threshold of the System What is the Anatomy i e Form of the Studied System Which Structure recognizes the Changing Internal Temperature What is the Physiology i e Work of the Studied System How does the System Recognize a Changing Internal Temperature Why is this Reflex classified as a Negative Feedback Loop If the Reflex Fails and Temperature continues to drop then what will the fish do If the Temperature should RISE will this Reflex be Activated and Restore Homeostasis Human Physiology Human Physiology 3 Mass Balance and Mass Flow constant levels Processes Necessary to ACHIEVE Homeostasis Fluid Blood Temperature Nutrient Mass Balance A Balanced Load at all times What would happen if or Intake Production Output Mass Flow X over Time Change min X X Flow Rate How much of X remains Or removed Over time Human Physiology Homeostasis and Mass Balance Only Possible When Other Physiological Themes are Present System Integration multiple systems for a single purpose Emergent Properties A property derived from the sum of many individual properties Communication control of cellular function Informative Signals and Coordinated Control in Biological Languages Structure Function Compartmentation division of space will reduce randomness Mechanical Physically Electrical Chemical Transformations Molecule to Molecule interaction occur Metabolism Chemical Rx Energy States and Forms Resources Storage and Allocation Substrate Exchange for acquisition and excretion Biologically active Products Human Physiology Slide 11 Consequence of NOT Maintaining Homeostasis is Disease Figure 1 4 Independent Variables Altered Homeostasis Is Pathophysiology Deviation Of Normal More Failure Dependent Outcomes Restored Homeostasis Is Normal Physiology Human Physiology Human Physiology 4


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