UCLA HIST 1B - Chp 20 Outline (4 pages)

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Chp 20 Outline



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Chp 20 Outline

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Pages:
4
School:
University of California, Los Angeles
Course:
Hist 1b - Introduction to Western Civilization: Circa A.D. 843 to Circa 1715
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W W Norton Company Western Civilizations 18e Chapter 20 The Age of Ideologies Europe in the Aftermath of Revolution 1815 1848 Chapter Study Outline 1 Introduction 1 After Waterloo Europe without revolution 1 Klemens von Metternich 2 Power of conservative monarchies 3 Liberalism a threat to Europe s dynastic rulers 2 Citizens and new political ideologies most notably Socialists 3 Industrial change and social change 4 Romanticism 2 The Search for Order in Europe 1815 1830 1 The Congress of Vienna and the Restoration 1 Central cast 2 Goals of the Congress 3 The Concert of Europe 2 Revolt against Restoration 1 Secret organization the Carbonari 2 Naples and the Piedmont 3 Metternich summoned Austrian Prussian and Russian representatives 3 Revolution in Latin America 1 The unsteady foundations of colonial rule 2 Argentina declared independence in 1816 3 The liberation of Chile and Peru 4 Simon de Bol var 1783 1830 5 Political revolts unleashed con ict and civil war 6 The United States 7 Britain 8 Brazil declared independence in 1823 4 Russia the Decembrists 1 Death of Tsar Alexander I 1825 2 The Decembrists 3 Nicholas I 1796 1855 r 1825 1855 4 Signs of change 5 Southeastern Europe Balkans Greece and Serbia 1 Local movements in Greece and Serbia began to demand autonomy 2 Greek war for independence 1821 1827 3 Serbia 4 Results 3 Citizenship and Sovereignty 1830 1848 1 Open revolts in France Belgium and Poland 1830 1832 2 1830 Revolution in France 1 Charles X r 1824 1830 3 Belgium and Poland in 1830 1 Belgium granted independence and neutrality by other European powers 2 Poland 4 Reform in Great Britain 1 Britain became one of the most liberal nations in Europe 2 Demand for changes after the Peterloo Massacre 3 Liberals in the Whig Party advocated change in Parliament 4 Reform Bill of 1832 5 Parliament abolished slavery in the colonies in 1838 6 Corn Laws repealed in 1846 and free trade law passed 5 British Radicalism and the Chartist Movement 1 People s Charter reformers petition 2 April 1848 Twenty ve thousand workers marched to Parliament with a petition signed by six million 4 The Politics of Slavery After 1815 1 Slavery Enlightenment and Revolution 1 Slavery contradicted natural law and natural freedom 2 Virginian planters refused to be slaves to the British king but continued to own slaves 3 French revolutionaries denounced a king who would enslave them yet slavery remained intact in French colonial islands in the Caribbean after the French Revolution 2 The Slow Path to Abolition 1 In England abolitionist leader William Wilberforce MP presented a petition to Parliament to ban the slave trade 2 Atlantic slave trade banned in 1808 3 Adam Smith argued that free labor like free trade was more ef cient 4 Religious revivals in the U S and England energized the abolitionist movement 5 Former slave trader Reverend John Newton wrote the hymn Amazing Grace to describe his conversion experience and salvation 6 It became acceptable for women to participate in the abolitionist movement 7 Antislavery petitions signed by millions in the 1820s and 1830s 8 Slave rebellions in Haiti Virginia Louisiana South Carolina Barbados and Jamaica 9 1838 Great Britain emancipated 800 000 slaves in its colonies 10 1848 French revolutionaries emancipated slaves in French colonies 11 New nations in Latin America eliminated slavery 5 Taking Sides New Ideologies in Politics 1 Issues raised by the French Revolution 1 Development of ideology 2 Changes brought by the Industrial Revolution 3 Questions of equality and rights 2 Principles of conservatism 1 The concept of legitimacy as a general antirevolutionary policy 2 The monarchy was a guarantee of political stability 3 Change must be slow incremental and managed 4 Edmund Burke 1729 1797 5 Joseph de Maistre 1753 1821 and Louis Gabriel Ambroise Bonald 1754 1840 6 The monarchy aristocracy and Church as mainstays of the social and political order 7 The revival of religion 3 Liberalism 1 The commitment to individual liberties and rights 2 Most important function of government was to protect these rights 3 Components 4 The roots of liberalism 5 Advocated direct representation in government for property owners 6 Economic liberalism 7 Liberty and freedom 4 Radicalism republicanism and early socialism 1 Republicans 2 Socialism 3 Robert Owen 1771 1858 4 Charles Fourier 1772 1837 5 Flora Tristan 1803 1844 6 Louis Blanc 1811 1882 7 Pierre Joseph Proudhon 1809 1865 5 Karl Marx 1818 1883 and socialism 1 In uenced by Hegel s philosophy 2 Studied philosophy but became a journalist 3 Partnership with Friedrich Engels 1820 1895 4 In 1847 Marx and Engels joined the League of the Just later renamed the Communist League 5 The Communist Manifesto 1848 6 Citizenship and community nationalism 1 Nation from the Latin nasci to be born 2 The French Revolution de ned nation to mean the people or the sovereign people 3 Celebrating a new political community not a territory or ethnicity 4 Nationalism in the early nineteenth century 5 Nationalism and the liberals 6 National identity developed and changed historically 7 Nationalism and the state 6 Cultural Revolt Romanticism 1 General observations 1 A diverse intellectual and cultural movement 2 A reaction against the Classicism of the eighteenth century 3 Instead of reason and discipline Romanticism embraced emotion freedom and imagination 4 The individual individuality and the subjective experience 5 Intuition emotion and feelings as the guides to truth 2 British Romantic poetry 1 William Wordsworth 1770 1850 and Samuel Taylor Coleridge 1772 1834 2 William Blake 1757 1827 3 George Gordon Lord Byron 1788 1824 4 Percy Bysshe Shelley 1792 1822 3 Women writers gender and Romanticism 1 Mary Godwin Shelley 1797 1851 2 George Sand 1804 1876 3 Madame de Sta l 1766 1817 4 Romantic painting 1 Britain 2 France 3 New ways of visualizing the world 4 Pointed to early twentieth century modernism 5 Romantic politics liberty history and nation 1 Victor Hugo 1802 1885 2 Fran ois de Chateaubriand 1768 1848 3 The Romantic uniqueness of cultures 4 Brothers Grimm 5 Friedrich Schiller 1759 1805 and Wilhelm Tell 1804 6 Sir Walter Scott 1771 1832 7 Adam Mickiewicz 1798 1855 Pan Tadeusz 1834 6 Orientalism 1 Napoleon s invasion of Egypt 1798 2 De ned Europe by looking at the Orient 3 A fascination with ethnography and new regions 4 Looking for the roots of Christianity 5 Fascination with medieval history and religion especially the Crusades 7 Goethe and Beethoven 1


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