UMass Amherst BIOLOGY 283 - Final Review (4 pages)

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Final Review



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Final Review

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Pages:
4
School:
University of Massachusetts Amherst
Course:
Biology 283 - General Genetics
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Final Review Exam 1 In a cross Aa Bb Cc Dd x Aa Bb Cc Dd in which all genes undergo indepedent assortment what portion of offspring are expected to be homozygous recessive for all four genes A 4 Genes are assorted independently so there s a chance of aa x a chance of bb ect In a cross of a round hybrid pea with a true breeding round parent Ww x WW what genotypic proportions would be observed in the offspring A Half heterozygous half homozygous dominant Punnett Square How many different gametes can be formed by an organism that is homozygous for three and heterozygous for two genes A 4 Number of gametes 2 of heterozygous traits The house fly Musca domestica has a haploid chromosome number of 6 How many chromatids should be present in a diploid somatic metaphase cell A 24 Diploid 12 chromosomes 24 chromatids Process Model Organism Cellular Replication E Coli Chloroplasts function Arabidopsis Cell cycle regulation S cerevisiae Cell differentiation C elegans Stage Anaphase I of Meiosis Anaphase of mitosis Anaphase II of Meiosis Chromosome 6 12 6 DNA molecules 12 12 6 Polydactyl is expressed when an individual has extra fingers toes Assume that a man with six fingers and toes marries a woman with a normal number of digits Having extra digits is dominant The couple has one son with normal digits but another with extra digits What is the probability that their next will have polydactyl A Man must be heterozygoues for trait women homozygoues recessive so cross between them will have half normal offspring and half effected offspring A couple has a son with XYY Which nondisjunction event occurred A Nondisjunction in Meiosis II of father FIND DIAGRAMS If two parents one with brown eyes and one with blues eyes produce one twin boy with blue eyes what is the probability that a fraternal twin will transmit blue eye allele to his or her offspring A Bb x bb Bb bb If Bb then chance of passing on b Being Bb x Passing on b 1 4 If bb then 100 chance of passing on b bb x 1 Passing on b Child is Bb OR bb so we add 1 2 If two heterozygous dogs were crossed to each other what would be the probability of having a first litter of five pups the firstborn with solid fur and then among the next four three with solid fur and one with spotted fur and then a second litter of seven pups in which the firstborn is spotted the second born is spotted and the remaining five are composed of four solid and one spotted animal P n x n x p x q n x First Litter 4 3 4 3 3 1 316 x 3 n 4 p q Second Litter 5 4 5 4 4 1 0247 316x 0247 0078 Probability of two liters A cross was made between two true breeding strains of plants F1 All offspring are disease sensitive and herbicide resistant F2 165 disease sensitive herbicide resistant 54 disease sensitive herbicide sensitive 58 disease resistant herbicide resistant 18 disease resistant herbicide sensitive Formulate a potential explanation for the data and construct a null hypothesis that includes the explicit statement of what expectations the null in based on Test the goodness of fit using a chisquared test Draw a conclusion Null hypothesis Difference between observed and expected is due to chance alone the F2 generation will follow a 9 3 3 1 in accordance with Mendel s theory of independent assortment Observed Chance Expected 165 9 16 166 54 3 16 55 58 3 16 55 18 1 16 18 Total 295 X 2 165 166 2 166 54 55 2 55 58 55 2 55 18 18 2 18 X 2 187 df 4 1 3 Since our P value is 99 above 05 we do not reject the null so we may assume the difference observed was due to chance alone and Mendel s rule of independent assortment apply here Exam 2 In a cross between homozygous wild type female Drosophila and yellow bodied males all of the F1s were phenotypically wild type The F2 generation resulting from mating of the F1s had 356 wild type offspring and 123 yellow bodied offspring However all 240 females were wild type and of the 239 males 116 were wild type and 123 were yellow bodied How is the yellow bodied trait inherited A X linked recessive In cattle the presence or absence of scurs follows a sex influenced pattern of inheritance Therefore a heterozygous male has and a heterozygous female has A Scurs no scurs Map Units Total Offspring of recombinants Crossing two yellow mice results in yellow and non yellow offspring What percentage of offspring would you expect to be non yellow if you crossed two non yellow mice A 100 Cross Yy and Yy YY fatal Yy Yellow and yy Non yellow A 2 Flowers occur in three colors blue pink and white A pure breeding pink plant is mated with a pure breeding white plant All of the F1 are blue What the blue F1 are selfed the F2 occur in the ratio 9 blue 3 pink 4 white How many gene pairs control the flower color phenotype Proportion of offspring Penetrant x punnett square expectancy Chromosomes with deletions do not go through mitosis correctly so cell division in the embryo result in cells with abnormal number of chromosomes and these cells do not contribute properly to the development of the organism The pairwise map distances for four linked genes are follows A B 22 m u B C 7 m u C D 9 m u B D 2 m u AD 20 m u A C 29 mu What is the order A D B C Exam 3 Lowest melting point More A and T bonds Highest melting point More C and G bonds DNA poly III Adds nucleotides to the 3 end of the RNA primer DNA poly I Adds Nucleotides in place of the primer RNA after is is removed RNA poly II Transcribes genes that encode proteins RNA poly is not required for transcription


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