UMass Amherst PSYCH 241 - study guide for exam 3 (3 pages)

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study guide for exam 3



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study guide for exam 3

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Pages:
3
School:
University of Massachusetts Amherst
Course:
Psych 241 - Meth Inqry in Psych

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Study Guide for Exam 3 What are the four main goals of scientific research 1 Description events and their relationships are defined classified organized etc 2 Prediction based on observed correlations among 2 variables we are able to predict behavior and mental processes 3 Explanation we can understand and explain a phenomenon when we can identify its causes make a causal inference 4 Application applied research often designed to solve a problem Which of these goals are case studies and single subject experiments good at addressing Application What are the main differences between idiographic and nomothetic research Nomothetic attempting to establish general laws generalizations focus is to obtain objective knowledge through scientific methods Idiographic focuses on the individual no general laws are possible due to the suggestion that everyone is unique and therefore everyone should be studied in an individual way What are the main characteristics of case studies What is one limitation of this approach Intensive description and analysis of a single individual clinical observations self report archival data e g medical records can include assessment alone can report results of a treatment major problem lack of scientific control simultaneous treatments extraneous variables placebo effects What are some of the advantages of the case study method What are the disadvantages Advantages Rich source of ideas for hypotheses method for studying rare events individuals opportunity for clinical innovations and interventions possible challenge to theoretical assumptions tentative support for psychological theory pilot study leading to nomothetic research with groups Disadvantages difficult to draw cause and effect conclusions i e limited internal validity possible biases when interpreting outcomes observer bias biases in data collection e g poor memory problem of generalizing findings from a single individual e g limited external validity How does a single subject experiment



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