UMass Amherst ANTHRO 150 - Final Exam Study Guide (4 pages)

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Final Exam Study Guide



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Final Exam Study Guide

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School:
University of Massachusetts Amherst
Course:
Anthro 150 - Ancient Civilizations
Ancient Civilizations Documents
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Definitions include dates location culture and relevance to themes of class Adena time period culture time period 1000 BCE 100 CE moundbuilders that built small local bounds Ahau ajaw political rulership title from Maya civilization Lord King Ruler Classic Period Algonquian ancient culture of Northeast New England famers seasonal sites moved around all year gathered in big numbers in spring b c of fishing brought people together people dispersed again in summer fall winter disperse for hunting buildings were set apart each had own cornfield show had no warfare BEFORE Europeans came wigwams wetu built same as longhouse but smaller used same wigwam over over travelled with them would marry outside community everyone had extensive networks outside community Sachem community leader spokesperson chosen from selected families privileges balanced w responsibilities egalitarians with great social fluidity tribe east of the Berkshires Aztec ethnic group of Central Mexico Tenochtitlan rose to power through military and materialistic defeat of the Toltecs In Valley of Mexico 1150 AD 1519 They stopped because of the Spanish Conquest Southwest of Gulf of Mexico Ball court ball game linked in Maya culture to the hero twins death its overcoming monumental architecture by both the Mayas and Aztecs Bloodletting ritualized self cutting may have cut themselves with jade or stingray spines ritual bloodletting usually done by elites religious figures important in Maya culture Piercing of Tongue catch blood on bark and set bark on fire In the Mayan culture Everyone did it but the nobles did it publicly and more dramatically Nobles used sting ray spines instead of bone Cacao pods chocolate without sugar prestige good Cahokia site of Cahokia now St Louis site of biggest mound site in North America estimated population was 30 000 probably collapsed before Europeans got to Mississippi Largest North American settlement found in St Louis Missouri Has one of the largest pyramids in the world width wise not height Doesn t have a standing army no system of writing There were elite burials evidence of elite status of children too It was a pre state one of these cultures just on the edge of becoming huge Mississippian Culture Cenote limestone wears away creates underground lake only forms in Yucatan known as way to the Underworld hero twins used one Chinampas type of Mesoamerican agriculture uses small rectangular areas of fertile arable land to grow crops on the shallow lake beds in the Valley of Mexico City state a city that with its surrounding territory forms an independent state Civilization the stage of human social development and organization that is considered most advanced large sedentary communities agricultural intensification diversification of labor symbiotic economy centralized government social stratification Codex codices Little scrolls written by Mayans and Aztecs 5 Mayan Codex and 500 Aztec Codices These scrolls showed interest in recording tribute given military victories and myths Collapse when a society can no longer sustain itself ex not enough food can t protect themselves people move out NOT everyone dying or everything destroyed going from centralization to decentralization Environmental i e drought salt accumulating climatic Population social pressures people s choices Loss of legitimacy when Mayan trade broke down and did not have objects to show their elite status Weak central government Conquest the subjugation and assumption of control of a place or people through use of military force conquest of Aztecs by Spanish Copan archaeological site of the Maya Honduras capital city of the Maya during the Classic Period Effigy mounds moundbuilders built these mounds that looked like animals on the ground serpents eagles Environmental degradation deterioration of the environment through depletion of resources such as air water and soil any change or disturbance to the environment that is perceived to be deleterious or undesirable destruction of ecosystems and extinction of wildlife Formative Formative 2000 BCE 200 CE aka Pre Classic period Pre Classic Classic marks the first Maya collapse Classic Classic 200 CE 1000 CE Classic Post Classic marks the second Maya collapse giant temples built writing system calendar system developed most of the power existed w the people elite had power over religion rituals peasants better fed had control over trade routes elites had prestige goods and religious power probably given leftovers donations NO pack animals everything traded via trader w backpacks everything trades in small quantities prestige good obsidian greenstone jade quetzal feathers cacao Post Classic Post Classic 1000 CE 1697 CE 1697 marks the conquest of the last independent Maya city state Tayasal Greenstone jade prestige good Heritage property title etc that is or may be inherited Hieroglyphics Mesoamerica combination of logographic and syllabic values writing developed independently superficially similar to Egyptian hieroglyphs important dates in rulers lives matched up with the calendar Hopewell time period culture time period of 200 BCE 400 CE really really widespread moundbuilders that built bigger mounds more ceremonial more people buried in the mounds mounds shaped in animal effigies particular type of pottery conch shells important conch shells evidence of long distance trade Human sacrifice practice characteristic of Pre Columbian Aztecs Maya sacrifice was a common theme in in Mesoamerican cultures very important religious practice Iroquois ancient culture of Northeast New England farmers defined by language maize farmers hunter gatherers only had domesticated dogs 3 sisters maize beans squash food storage pits underground grass lined semipermanent settlements would stay for 20 years then move would build palisades around village for defense suggests warfare dwellings longhouse clustered close together complex egalitarian society war chiefs peacechiefs inherited achieved usually came from same family warfare increased after 1300 CE environmental stress increasing importance of maize Formation of large political alliance to decrease war matrilineal clans stature came from mother s side La Venta site in Olmec were babies half human half jaguar entities giant head statues ballcourts had greenstone mosaics Language the method of human communication either spoken or written consisting of the use of words in a structured and conventional way Long distance trade trade between places


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