UMass Amherst PSYCH 100 - Exam 3 Cheat Sheet (2 pages)

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Exam 3 Cheat Sheet



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Exam 3 Cheat Sheet

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Pages:
2
School:
University of Massachusetts Amherst
Course:
Psych 100 - Introductory Psychology

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Thinking brain activity in which people mentally manipulate information including words visual images sounds or other data Mental images representations in the mind of an object or event Concepts a mental grouping of similar objects events or people Prototypes typical highly representative examples of a concept Deductive reasoning reasoning from the general to the specific Inductive reasoning reasoning from the specific to the general Algorithm a rule that if applied appropriately guarantees a solution to a problem Heuristic a thinking strategy that may lead us to a solution to a problem or decision but unlike algorithms may sometimes lead to errors rule of thumb or mental shortcuts that may lead to a solution or a problem enhance likelihood of finding a solution but do not ensure one save time and effort may produce errors Representative heuristic making judgements based on similarity to known concepts Availability heuristic judging likelihood of an event by considering the ease with which examples can be recalled from memory judging frequency based on vividness Means end analysis involves repeated tests for differences between the desired outcome and what currently exists Insight a sudden awareness of the relationships among various elements that had previously appeared to be independent of one another occur without stepwise deduction Impediments to problem solving functional fixedness and mental set Functional fixedness the tendency to think of an object only in terms of its typical use Mental set the tendency to approach a problem in a certain way because that method had worked previously Confirmation bias the tendency to find and apply information that supports one s initial solution or idea and to ignore information that does not support it Creativity the ability to generate original ideas or solve problems in novel ways Divergent thinking thinking that generates unusual yet nonetheless appropriate responses to problems or questions Convergent thinking



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