UMass Amherst PSYCH 100 - Exam 3 Cheat Sheet (2 pages)

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Exam 3 Cheat Sheet



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Exam 3 Cheat Sheet

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Pages:
2
School:
University of Massachusetts Amherst
Course:
Psych 100 - Introductory Psychology
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Thinking brain activity in which people mentally manipulate information including words visual images sounds or other data Mental images representations in the mind of an object or event Concepts a mental grouping of similar objects events or people Prototypes typical highly representative examples of a concept Deductive reasoning reasoning from the general to the specific Inductive reasoning reasoning from the specific to the general Algorithm a rule that if applied appropriately guarantees a solution to a problem Heuristic a thinking strategy that may lead us to a solution to a problem or decision but unlike algorithms may sometimes lead to errors rule of thumb or mental shortcuts that may lead to a solution or a problem enhance likelihood of finding a solution but do not ensure one save time and effort may produce errors Representative heuristic making judgements based on similarity to known concepts Availability heuristic judging likelihood of an event by considering the ease with which examples can be recalled from memory judging frequency based on vividness Means end analysis involves repeated tests for differences between the desired outcome and what currently exists Insight a sudden awareness of the relationships among various elements that had previously appeared to be independent of one another occur without stepwise deduction Impediments to problem solving functional fixedness and mental set Functional fixedness the tendency to think of an object only in terms of its typical use Mental set the tendency to approach a problem in a certain way because that method had worked previously Confirmation bias the tendency to find and apply information that supports one s initial solution or idea and to ignore information that does not support it Creativity the ability to generate original ideas or solve problems in novel ways Divergent thinking thinking that generates unusual yet nonetheless appropriate responses to problems or questions Convergent thinking thinking in which a problem is viewed as having a single answer and which produces responses that are based primarily on knowledge and logic Language the communication of information through symbols arranged according to systematic rules Grammar the system of rules that determine how our thoughts can be expressed Phonology the study of the smallest units of speech called phonemes Phonemes the smallest units of speech Syntax ways in which words and phrases can be combined to form sentences Semantics the meaning of words and sentences Babble meaningless speech like sounds made by children from around the age of 3 months to 1 year Telegraphic speech sentences in which only essential words are used Overgeneralization the phenomenon by which children over apply a language rule thereby making it a linguistic error Learning theory approach the theory that language acquisition follows the principles of reinforcement and conditioning Nativist approach the theory that humans are biologically pre wired to learn language at certain times and in particular ways Interactionist approach the view that language development is produced through a combination of genetically determined predispositions and environmental circumstances that help teach language Linguist relativity hypothesis the hypothesis that language shapes and may determine the way people perceive and understand the world Motivation the factors that direct and energize the behavior of humans and other organisms relates to the factors that direct and energize behavior sustaining behavior source of energy arousal explaining variations in behavior over time or between people describing goals explaining why people do what they do why we do what we do Needs an unsatisfactory internal state or a lack of something necessary for well being that drives behavior Primary needs food water air paid avoidance etc Secondary needs derive from primary ones or are inherently psychological money power achievement affiliation Impel behavior needs to have directionality toward food away from pain will seek out satisfaction of need variation of need strength Maslow s hierarchy of needs Abraham Maslow needs form a hierarchy fixed order forming a pyramid most basic needs at bottom higher order needs on top physiological needs safety needs belonging needs esteem needs self actualization needs Motives come between needs and behavior cognition with emotional overtones organized around preferred experiences and goals pushed by needs but also pulled by environment incentive hunger drives need for food but so does the food itself if only need for food any food should do Instincts inborn patterns of behavior that are biologically determined rather than learned Drive reduction approaches to motivation theories suggesting that a lack of some basic biological need produces a drive to push an organism to satisfy that need Drive motivational tension or arousal that energizes behavior to fulfill a need Homeostasis the body s tendency to maintain a steady internal state Arousal approaches to motivation the belief that we try to maintain certain levels of stimulation and activity Incentive approaches to motivation theories suggesting that motivation stems from the desire to attain external rewards known as incentives Cognitive approaches to motivation theories suggesting that motivation is a result of people s thoughts beliefs expectations and goals Self actualization a state of self fulfillment in which people realize their highest potential in their own unique way Obesity body weight that that is more than 20 above the average weight for a person of a particular height Weight set point the particular level of weight that the body strives to maintain Metabolism the rate at which food is converted to energy and expended by the body Anorexia nervosa a severe eating disorder in which people may refuse to eat while denying that their behavior and appearance which can become skeleton like like are unusual Bulimia a disorder in which a person binges on large quantities of food followed by efforts to purge the food through vomiting or other means Need for achievement a stable learned characteristic in which a person obtains satisfaction by striving for and achieving challenging goals can be satisfied in many ways same need channeled through different motives different beliefs cognitions about achievement Need for affiliation an interest in establishing and maintaining relationships with other people Need for power a


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