UMass Amherst PSYCH 100 - Exam 2 Cheat Sheet (2 pages)

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Exam 2 Cheat Sheet



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Exam 2 Cheat Sheet

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Pages:
2
School:
University of Massachusetts Amherst
Course:
Psych 100 - Introductory Psychology
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Consciousness the awareness of the sensations thoughts and feelings being experienced at a given moment a person s momentary awareness of experiencing sensations thoughts and feelings Altered state of consciousness states that differ from normal waking consciousness Stage 1 sleep the state of transition between wakefulness sleep characterized by relatively rapid low amplitude brain waves alpha waves Stage 2 sleep a sleep deeper than stage 1 characterized by slower more regular wave pattern along with momentary interruptions of sleep spindles theta waves Stage 3 sleep a sleep characterized by slow brain waves with greater peaks and valleys in the wave pattern than in stage 2 delta waves Stage 4 sleep the deepest stage of sleep during which we are the least responsive to outside stimulation delta waves Rapid eye movement REM sleep sleep occupying 20 of an adult s sleeping time characterized by increased heart rate blood pressure and breathing rate erections eye movements and the experience of dreaming skeletal muscle paralysis shallow stage Unconscious Wish Fulfillment Theory Freud s theory that dreams represent unconscious wishes that dreamers desire to see fulfilled manifest content storyline what we remember disguises the latent content actual underlying wishes universal symbols Dreams for Survival Theory suggests that dreams permit information that is critical for our daily survival to be reconsidered and reprocessed during sleep dreaming considered inherited from our animal ancestors whose small brains were unable to go through all the info during waking hours limited brain power dreams are inherently meaningful Activation Synthesis Theory Hobson s theory that the brain produces random electrical energy during REM sleep that stimulates memories stored in the brain neuroscience perspective result of changes in the production of particular neurotransmitters brain excels at making memory meaning out of ambiguous or fragmentary stimuli Reverse Learning Theory dreams have no meaning at all mental housekeeping flushing away unnecessary info accumulated throughout the day unlearning of material that serves no purpose and could end up being confusing searching for meaning in the dream content is therefore pointless Attention a state of focused awareness on a subset of the available perceptual info focused consciousness much of the available perceptual info in environment never enters awareness Selective attention choosing the stimuli that will enter awareness goal directed selection purposeful attention stimulus driven capture stimulus captures attention repetition novelty change unusual features Inattentional blindness failing to see an obvious visual stimulus when your attention is narrowly focused Changes in blindness failing to notice changes in the visual field internal representation of the visual world is not as precise as you might think Insomnia affects as many as 1 3 people all have it at some point in our lives Circadian rhythms biological processes that occur regularly on approximately a 24 hour cycle blood pressure hormone production body temperature SLEEPING WAKING all on circadian rhythms Daydreams fantasies people construct while awake more under control than dreams part of waking consciousness Hypnosis a trancelike state of heightened susceptibility to the suggestions of others do not lose all will of their own 5 20 cannot be hypnotized at all and 15 are very easily hypnotized hypnosis is a state of consciousness different from normal waking helps with controlling pain reducing smoking treating psychological disorders assisting in law enforcement improving athletic performance Meditation a learned technique for refocusing attention that brings about an altered state of consciousness Psychoactive drugs drugs that influence a person s emotions perceptions and behavior some alter limbic system others affect the operation of specific neurotransmitters across the synapses of neurons Addictive drugs drugs that produce a biological or psychological dependence in the user so that withdrawal from them leads to a craving for the drug that in some cases may be nearly irresistible physiological dependence the body becomes so accustomed to functioning in the presence of the drug that it cannot function without it psychological dependence people believe that they need the drug to respond to the stress of daily living Different ways drugs produce effects enhances release of neurotransmitter blocks removal of transmitter enhances by mimicking neurotransmitter blocks receptor for neurotransmitter blocks release of neurotransmitter Stimulants drugs that have an arousal effect on the central nervous system causing a rise in heart rate blood pressure and muscular tension ex caffeine nicotine cocaine amphetamines are more dangerous can lead to convulsions and death Depressants drugs that slow down the nervous system can cause intoxication along with feelings of euphoria ex alcohol barbituates Narcotics drugs that increase relaxation and relieve pain and anxiety ex morphine heroin very addictive dangerous Hallucinogen a drug that is capable of producing hallucinations or changes in the perceptual process ex marijuana LSD Learning a relatively permanent change in behavior brought about by experience almost everything we do is influenced by what we have learned Stimulus physical aspect of the environment that is capable of exciting an organism s sense organs visual auditory tactile Classical conditioning a type of learning in which a neutral stimulus comes to bring about a response after it is paired with a stimulus that naturally brings about that response Ivan Pavlov procedure UCS goes to UCR then NR CR goes to CR does NOT create new behaviors only connects naturally occurring responses to new stimuli mainly visceral responses gut emotional responses S comes before R R achieves no result Response overt act or movement S R connectionism learning consists of the connection of certain responses to the perception of certain stimuli conditioning not all learning can be explained in terms of pure S R connectionism ex driving a car is observational learning learning occurs without direct experience Neutral stimulus a stimulus that before conditioning does not naturally bring about the response of interest Unconditioned stimulus UCS a stimulus that naturally brings about a particular response without having been learned leads to an unconditioned response not trained naturally occurring


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