UMass Amherst PSYCH 100 - Exam 1 Cheat Sheet (2 pages)

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Exam 1 Cheat Sheet



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Exam 1 Cheat Sheet

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Pages:
2
School:
University of Massachusetts Amherst
Course:
Psych 100 - Introductory Psychology
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Psychology the scientific study of mental processes and behavior not just what people do but also their biological activities feelings perceptions memory reasoning and thoughts PhD doctorate of philosophy research degree that requires a dissertation based on an original investigation PsyD doctorate of psychology obtained by psychologists who want to focus on the treatment of psychological disorders Behavioral neuroscience focus on biological basis of behavior Experimental psychologist study the processes of thinking sensing perceiving and learning in the world Cognitive psychology studies higher mental processes including memory knowing thinking reasoning problem solving judging decision making and language Developmental psychology study how people grow and change throughout the life span Personality psychology consider the change and consistency of an individual s behavior as well as individual s differences that distinguish one person s behavior from another s Health psychology study psychological factors that affect physical disease Clinical psychology consider the study diagnosis and treatment of abnormal behavior Counseling psychology focus on educational social and career adjustment problems Social psychology study of how people s thoughts feelings and actions are affected by others Cross cultured psychology examines similarities and differences in psychological functioning among various cultures Wilhem Wundt established first experimental laboratory devoted to psychological phenomena in Germany in late 19 th century Structuralism Wilhelm Wundt s approach which focuses on uncovering the fundamental mental components of consciousness thinking and other kinds of mental states and activities Introspection a procedure used to study the structure of the mind in which subjects are asked to describe in detail what they are experiencing when they are exposed to a stimulus William James American psychologist who led functionalist movement Functionalism an early approach to psychology led by William James that concentrated on what the mind does the functions of mental activity and the role of behavior in allowing people to adapt to their environments Gestalt psychology an approach to psychology that focuses on the organization of perception and thinking in a whole sense rather than on the individual elements of perception the whole is different than the sum of its parts Mary Calkins studied memory became first female president of the American Psychological Association Neuroscience perspective the approach that views behavior from the perspective of the brain the nervous system and other biological functions Psychodynamic perspective the approach based on the view that behavior is motivated by unconscious inner forces over which the individual has little control Behavioral perspective the approach that suggests observable measurable behavior should be the focus of study Cognitive perspective the approach that focuses on how people think understand and know about the world Humanistic perspective the approach that suggests that all individuals naturally strive to grow develop and be in control of their lives and behavior Origins of psychology Wilhem Wundt laid the foundation of psychology in 1879 when he opened his laboratory in Germany early perspectives that guided the work of psychologists were structuralism led by Wilhem Wundt functionalism led by William James and gestalt theory Free will the idea that behavior is caused primarily by choices that are made freely by the individual Determinism the idea that people s behavior is produced primarily by factors outside of their willful control Psychology s key issues controversies center on how much of human behavior is a product of nurture or nature conscious or unconscious thoughts observable actions or internal mental processes free will or determinism and individual differences or universal principles Future of psychology become increasingly specialized will pay greater attention to prevention instead of just treatment will become more and more concerned with the public interest and will take the growing diversity of the country s population into account more fully Theories broad explanations and predictions concerning phenomena of interest Hypothesis a prediction stemming from a theory stated in a way that allows it to be tested Operational definition the translation of a hypothesis into specific testable procedures that can be measured and observed Scientific method approach psychologists use to understand behavior identifying questions of interest formulating an explanation carrying out research that is designed to support or refute the explanation and communications of the findings Naturalistic observation research in which an investigator observes some naturally occurring behavior and does not make a change in the situation Survey research research in which people chosen to represent a larger population are asked a series of questions about their behavior thoughts or attitudes Case study an in depth intensive investigation of an individual or small group of people Variables behaviors events or other characteristics that can change or vary in some way Correlational research research in which the relationship between two sets of variables is examined to determine whether they are associated or correlated Experiment investigation of the relationship between 2 variables by deliberately producing a change in one variable in a situation and observing the effects of that change on other aspects of the situation Experimental manipulation the change that an experimenter deliberately produces in a situation Treatment the manipulation implemented by the experimenter Experimental group any group participating in an experiment that receives a treatment Control group a group participating in an experiment that receives no treatment Independent variable the variable that is manipulated by the experimenter Dependent variable the variable that is measured in an experiment expected to change as a result of the experimenter s manipulation of the independent variable Random assignment to condition a procedure in which participants are assigned to different experimental groups or conditions on the basis of chance and chance alone Significant outcome meaningful results that make it possible for researchers to feel confident that they have confirmed their hypotheses Replicated research research that is repeated sometime using other procedures


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