UMass Amherst PSYCH 100 - exam 4 cheat sheet (2 pages)

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exam 4 cheat sheet



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exam 4 cheat sheet

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School:
University of Massachusetts Amherst
Course:
Psych 100 - Introductory Psychology
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Psychodynamic approaches to personality approaches that assume that personality is primarily unconscious and motivated by inner forces and conflicts about which people have little awareness Psychoanalytic theory Freud s theory that unconscious forces act as determinants of personality Unconscious a part of the personality that contains the memories knowledge beliefs feelings urges drives and instincts of which the individual is not aware ID the raw unorganized inborn part of the personality whole sole purpose is to reduce tension created by primitive drives related to hunger sex aggression and irrational impulses pleasure principle Ego the part of the personality that provides a buffer between the id and the outside world reality principle Superego the personality structure that harshly judges the morality of our behavior conscience ego ideal Psychosexual stages developmental periods that children pass through during which they encounter conflicts between the demands of society and their own sexual urges Fixations conflicts or concerns that persists beyond the developmental period in which they first occur Oral stage according to Freud a stage from birth to age 12 to 18 months in which an infant s center of pleasure is the mouth Anal stage stage from age 12 months to 18 months to 3 years of age in which a child s center of pleasure is the anus Phallic stage stage beginning around 3 years old that a child s pleasure focuses on the genitals Oedipal conflict a child s intense sexual interest in his or her opposite sex parent Identification the process of wanting to be like another person as much as possible imitating that person s behavior and adopting similar beliefs and values Latency period according to Freud the period between the phallic stage and puberty during which children s sexual concerns are temporarily put aside Genital stage period from puberty until death marked by mature sexual behavior that is sexual intercourse Defense mechanisms in Freudian theory unconscious strategies that people use to reduce anxiety by distorting reality and concealing the source of the anxiety from themselves Repression the primary defense mechanism in which the ego pushes unacceptable or unpleasant impulses out of awareness and back into the unconscious Regression people behave as if they were at an earlier stage of development Displacement the expression of an unwanted feeling or thought is redirected from a more threatening powerful person to a weaker one Rationalization people provide self justifying explanations in place of the actual but threatening reason for their behavior Denial people refuse to accept or acknowledge an anxiety producing piece of information Projection people attribute unwanted impulses and feelings to someone else Sublimation people divert unwanted impulses into socially approved thoughts feelings or behaviors Reaction formation unconscious impulses are expressed as their opposite in consciousness Neo Freudian psychoanalysts psychoanalysts who were trained in traditional Freudian theory but who later rejected some of its major points Collective unconscious according to Jung inherited set of ideas feelings images and symbols that are shared with all humans because of our common ancestral past Archetypes according to Jung universal symbolic representations of particular types of people objects ideas or experiences Traits consistent personality characteristics and behaviors displayed in different situations Trait theory a model of personality that seeks to identify the basic traits necessary to describe personality Social cognitive approaches to personality theories that emphasize the influence of a person s cognitions thoughts feelings expectations and values as well as observation of others behavior in determining personality Self efficacy the belief that we have the personal capabilities to master a situation and produce positive outcomes Self esteem the component of personality that encompasses our positive and negative self evaluations Biological and evolutionary approaches to personality theories that suggest that important components of personality are inherited Temperament a person s behavioral style and characteristic way of responding that emerges early in life Humanistic approaches to personality theories that emphasize people s innate goodness and desire to achieve higher levels of functioning Self actualization a state of self fulfillment in which people realize their highest potential each in a unique way Unconditional positive regard an attitude of acceptance and respect on the part of the observer no matter what a person says or does Psychological tests standard measures devised to assess behavior objectively used by psychologists to help people make decisions about their lives and understand more about themselves Self report measures a method of gathering data about people by asking them questions about their own behavior and traits MMPI 2 RF a widely used self report test that identifies people with psychological difficulties and is employed to predict some everyday behaviors Test standardization a technique used to validate questions in personality tests by studying the responses of people with known diagnoses Projective personality test a test in which a person is shown an ambiguous vague stimulus and asked to describe it or tell a story about it Rorschach test a test that involves showing a series of symmetrical visual stimuli to people who then are asked what the figures represents to them TAT a test consisting of a series of pictures about which a person is asked to write a story Behavioral assessment direct measures of an individual s behavior used to describe personality characteristics Abnormal behavior behavior that causes people to experience distress and prevents them from functioning in their daily lives Medical perspective the perspective that suggests that when an individual displays symptoms of abnormal behavior the root cause will be found in a physical examination of the individual which may reveal a hormonal imbalance a chemical deficiency or a brain injury Psychoanalytic perspective the perspective that suggests that abnormal behavior stems from childhood conflicts over opposing wishes regarding sex and aggression Behavioral perspective the perspective that looks at the rewards and punishments in the environment that determine abnormal behavior Cognitive perspective the perspective that suggests that people s thoughts and beliefs


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